Saturday, February 29, 2020

NTVUganda has added Talk Of The Nation: What lies ahead for the next C.O.U archbishop? video

Talk Of The Nation: What lies ahead for the next C.O.U archbishop?



Tonight, as we continue to reflect on the enthronement of Dr Samuel Stephens Kaziimba Mugalu as the new archbishop of Uganda, we consider what the job will actually entail, especially the challenges involved in his work as head of the anglican church. To help us is a priest of this church, Rev Dr GRACE LUBAALE, who is also a senior lecturer in teacher training at Kyambogo University#NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit http://www.ntv.co.ug Follow us on Twitter http://www.twitter.com/ntvuganda Like our Facebook page https://ift.tt/1bbEIWm

NTVUganda has added CHRIS RWAKASISI: From feared Minister to death row inmate video

CHRIS RWAKASISI: From feared Minister to death row inmate



Chris Rwakasisi was a state Minister in the office of the President in the Obote two government. Given his closeness to President Milton Obote, Rwakasisi was also a very powerful minister, who had a lot of authority over some government administration. This gave him a lot of power. However, his power brought him problems after Obote was overthrown by Gen Tito Okello Lutwa. Rwakasisi was consequently arrested, detained at Luzira and later condemned to death, after the NRM took power. In Living History, Agness Nandutu listens to his story#NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit http://www.ntv.co.ug Follow us on Twitter http://www.twitter.com/ntvuganda Like our Facebook page https://ift.tt/1bbEIWm

NTVUganda has added KAZIIMBA ENTHRONEMENT: Understanding the rites and rituals video

KAZIIMBA ENTHRONEMENT: Understanding the rites and rituals



With a few hours to the enthronement of the ninth Archbishop of the Church of Uganda preparations are in their final phase. NTV now looks at what religious rites and procedures are followed during the course of the enthronement. #NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit http://www.ntv.co.ug Follow us on Twitter http://www.twitter.com/ntvuganda Like our Facebook page https://ift.tt/1bbEIWm

Sudan fires scores of diplomats allegedly linked to Bashir

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KHARTOUM (Reuters) - Sudan has fired scores of diplomats for alleged links to the administration of toppled President Omar al-Bashir, a legal committee said on Saturday.

The Empowerment Removal Committee was formed under a law introduced in November to dismantle the system built by Bashir, who was ousted in April last year after nearly three decades in power.

“One-hundred-and-nine ambassadors, diplomats and administrators were fired from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and those were appointed through political and social empowerment,” Mohamed al-Faki, deputy head of the committee, told a news conference in the capital, Khartoum.

Some of the diplomats were appointed by Bashir himself and the others were picked through his now dissolved National Congress Party, said Taha Othman, a member of the committee.

Earlier this month, the committee dissolved the boards of the country’s central bank and 11 other state-owned banks and fired the managers of eight of the banks.

It also seized the assets of the former ruling party last month.

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-sudan-politics/sudan-fires-scores-of-diplomats-allegedly-linked-to-bashir-idUSKBN20N0WB

UGANDA: Opposition must learn that not everyone in @PoliceUg is an enemy

Martha Leah Nangalama's mother - she is 84yrs old

Martha Leah Nangalama's mother - she is 84yrs old
Today, February 29, 2020 ( a leap year, Dwendi duendi) has been one of the most humbling days of my life.

It all started 2 days ago when one of my friends (he is like a brother to me) in UPF texted me that this weekend he was gonna visist Mummy.

I asked him: "Which mother? Is it mine in Mpigi or yours in Mbale"?

I then told him "Well, never mind which mother you are going to visit. Let me send you katonotono like Sh. 50,000 so that you take to mom bread, blue band and those small cakes our elders like. And for sugar. Maybe even milk".

He texted back "Did I even ask for your money. Nze, me, I have been saving my own money. I am gonna see mummy".

What is interesting about this brother of mine is that he is a completely Butabika case. I call him many bad words. I attack him. I abuse him. I insult him. He always replies with "Naye Leah, olina ekyegyo". I do not even know what that word means.

One time when UPF had to go to Soroti (could have been Gulu or Lira or one of them remote places), he video called me as their Police Bus was about to cross Karuma. I had been covering accidents on that damn place and I did not think it was funny.

By this time, I am on video with a bus full of cops. They always get shocked when I talk to them via video. Now, I tell my baby brother: "Please tell the driver to slow down because that junction has had too many accidents. Here is a song." I immediately sent him the audio of SPEED by the Afrigo Band.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uaiybu1zwnc

Now, from that wedding, they ended up in Mbale. This is when all the trouble begun. The wedding reception was in Mbale. My mother lives in Mbale. The Commander asked me for directions to mom's house. I had no idea because it is a house we built for her years ago and I have never been there. Then he said, "Baby, do you want me to go around all of Mbale showing your photo and asking boda bodas to drive me there"? So, we quick came up with a plan. He took off his police uniform and jumped on a Boda. He went to see my mother as a regular son. A great son he is. They had lunch together. At the end of the visit, he told her "I am a Police Officer. My rank is Commander".

You see, given how much I criticise the Ugandan regime, my mother would have fainted and died if she had seen anyone in uniform coming to her place.

TODAY there was another wedding in Mbale. My beloved brother was not wearing his UPF uniform and neither were any of the people in his company. The gentlemen were wearing Kanzu. The ladies were wearing gomesi.

He video calls me as they are turning into the driveway to mom's house "Tutuse. Tugenda kulaba mama. Surprise for her."

Then they had video chatting as they walked out of their police truck and into her house. I wish I could describe you the feeling. What a feeling.

My mother was very happy to see her son. Very happy. I have the videos. My brother is a bit taller than my mother. He held her in his arms as they embraced. She fell into his arms as though "where have you been my son?"  It was at this point that I broke out in tears.

Tears of missing my mother. Tears of my friend being with my mother. Tears of love. Tears of an incredible love that connects me to Uganda forevermore. She said to him "You disappeared like Leah". As he is trying to say he is always around, he introduces the other officers who had gone with him.

On this one clip, my mother is seen talking to one officer in Lugisu as though the cops speak Lumasaba. But the other gentleman, very humble and smiling from ear to ear is answering her in broken Lumasaba. What a site. Now, my mother is fluent in Luganda, so she could have spoken them in Luganda but today for some reason, she kept speaking Lumasaba.

I cried a lot watching them. Not because I felt sad or anything like that. I cried because of  THE POWER OF LOVE. My little sister Lakeli came onto the video and was laughing her head off saying "do not cry, we are happy". Cry in happiness. The emotions were too overwhelming and I was crying very hard that the UPF officer had to kill the phone connection.

The next time you see a Uganda Police Officer, please buy them a Fanta. You have no idea how far they will go to care. They are just living under a system which we will challenge and change soon. In time. With time. Amen

MARTHA LEAH NANGALAMA
Moncton, Canada
Bududa, Uganda

Afrigo - Speed 1 (Official Audio)



Afrigo - Speed 1 (Official Audio)

Afrigo - Speed 1 (Official Audio) Subscribe to Ugandan Music Videos on YouTube: http://bit.ly/UgandanSubs New Ugandan Music Videos : Latest Ugandan Songs: Best Ugandan Music Videos : Latest Uganda Music Videos: This the place where you get ugandan songs: Ugandan songs: ugandan music 2016: Kadongo Kamu Music

NTVUganda has added City arcade traders welcome directive on toilet fees video

City arcade traders welcome directive on toilet fees



Government has banned city arcade owners from levying toilet fees on tenants. Government says that the responsibility of operating toilet facilities should fall on the arcade owners using the rent that they collect from the tenants. Whereas the traders have welcomed this move, they note that there are other more pressing issues that they want to government to look into as well.#NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit http://www.ntv.co.ug Follow us on Twitter http://www.twitter.com/ntvuganda Like our Facebook page https://ift.tt/1bbEIWm

NTVUganda has added President Museveni calls for caution in personal interactions video

President Museveni calls for caution in personal interactions



President Museveni has warned Ugandans against shaking hands in order to avoid contracting and spreading the wide spread corona virus. Museveni's warning came as he presided at the official opening of Emmanuel Cardinal Wamala Museum at Kamagwa village in Lwankoni sub-county in Kyotera district. The museum is built in honouring what Cardinal Wamala has done to promote the Catholic faith in the country#NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit http://www.ntv.co.ug Follow us on Twitter http://www.twitter.com/ntvuganda Like our Facebook page https://ift.tt/1bbEIWm

NTVUganda has added AFRICA JUNIOR FENCING: Uganda wins silver medal in Ghana video

AFRICA JUNIOR FENCING: Uganda wins silver medal in Ghana



Uganda has won a silver medal at the Africa Junior Fencing Championship raging on at Cape Coast in Ghana. Fifteen year old Renee Nassozi who participated in the Under seventeen category settled for Silver after losing her quarterfinal match. We have the highlights of her match.#NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit http://www.ntv.co.ug Follow us on Twitter http://www.twitter.com/ntvuganda Like our Facebook page https://ift.tt/1bbEIWm

NTVUganda has added EALA: Tanzanians block passing of customs bill video

EALA: Tanzanians block passing of customs bill



Members of parliament representing Tanzania in the East African legislative assembly have opposed the passing of a bill that sought to stop double charges on customs warehouse rent at Mombasa and Dar-es-salaam ports. The customs and management amendment bill was moved after traders from Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya petitioned the assembly seeking to look into barriers hindering the movement of goods around the region. The barriers were more pertinent for landlocked EAC countries. However, as FRANCIS JJINGO reports, Tanzania representatives together with their minister Dr Damas Ndumbaro opposed the amendment and later kept away from the proceedings, denying the assembly quorum to pass the bill. #NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit http://www.ntv.co.ug Follow us on Twitter http://www.twitter.com/ntvuganda Like our Facebook page https://ift.tt/1bbEIWm

NTVUganda has added NRM starts mobilisation drive in Koboko video

NRM starts mobilisation drive in Koboko



NRM leaders in Koboko district have embarked on a mobilization campaign ahead of the 2021 general elections. State Minister for Investment and Koboko Municipality MP Evelyn Anite says one way they are mobilizing is by giving accountability of the projects they promised in the NRM manifesto. #NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit http://www.ntv.co.ug Follow us on Twitter http://www.twitter.com/ntvuganda Like our Facebook page https://ift.tt/1bbEIWm

NTVUganda has added Palm valley golf: over 70 players grace inaugural event video

Palm valley golf: over 70 players grace inaugural event



Over 70 players have graced the inaugural palm valley open as played today at palm valley golf and country club. As Grace Kasango put a lead in the gross players with 149 total returns in three days, ladies have put more fights for bragging rights as the open urshers them to the 10th edition of the Entebbe ladies open next weekend.#NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit http://www.ntv.co.ug Follow us on Twitter http://www.twitter.com/ntvuganda Like our Facebook page https://ift.tt/1bbEIWm

NTVUganda has added WOMEN’S U-17 WORLD CUP: Uganda prepares to take on TZ in qualifier video

WOMEN’S U-17 WORLD CUP: Uganda prepares to take on TZ in qualifier



Uganda take on hosts Tanzania tomorrow in a FIFA women's U17 World Cup qualifier in Dar Es Salaam. Uganda had a feel of the turf today ahead of the clash and coach Ayub Khalifa remains confident his charges will bring back the desired result. #NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit http://www.ntv.co.ug Follow us on Twitter http://www.twitter.com/ntvuganda Like our Facebook page https://ift.tt/1bbEIWm

NTVUganda has added Delegates agree to develop netball at grassroots video

Delegates agree to develop netball at grassroots



The Uganda Netball Federation delegates have today agreed to continue developing the game from grass root and district levels during their Annual General Assembly at Kati Kati Restaurant in Lugogo. Meanwhile Susan Anek the netball federation president has also hinted on securing an independent court for netball instead of relying on the sole MTN Arena in Lugogo. She has expressed disappointment for the delayed work on the indoor arena in Makerere that was meant for netball and other indoor games#NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit http://www.ntv.co.ug Follow us on Twitter http://www.twitter.com/ntvuganda Like our Facebook page https://ift.tt/1bbEIWm

First U.S. death from coronavirus confirmed in Washington state, according to health officials

Fans wear face masks Saturday at a European football game between Lazio and Bologna at Stadio Olimpico in Rome. (REUTERS/Alberto Lingria)

By WASHINGTON POST
Feb. 29, 2020 at 2:34 p.m. AST

BREAKING: A person diagnosed with coronavirus in King County in Washington state has died, according to health officials on Saturday.

In a statement released Saturday, the Washington State Department of Health and Seattle and King County health officials said they would offer more details at a 1 p.m. local time news conference. They will discuss the death and new confirmed cases in the county.

More coronavirus infections were also reported from South Korea to France to Qatar on Saturday after health officials in Washington state, Oregon and California on Friday reported another worrying development: new cases among people who have not traveled recently to countries hit hard by the outbreak or come into contact with anyone known to have the disease, which public health officials refer to as community transmission.

The four new cases Friday bring the total number of covid-19 cases detected through the U.S. public health system to 19, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Washington state announced late Friday that a high school student in Snohomish County, just north of Seattle, tested positive for the deadly virus and was in home isolation in a suspected community transmission case. State health officials also said a woman in her 50s in King County tested positive after traveling to Daegu, South Korea, the site of a major coronavirus outbreak. She, too, is in home isolation.

Earlier Friday, Oregon health officials reported a presumptive positive test in a Washington County elementary school employee with no known travel history or contact with infected individuals. California also reported a second case of community transmission, in Santa Clara County, after reporting the nation’s first such case, in Solano County, earlier in the week.

Here are the latest developments:

The Food and Drug Administration expanded coronavirus testing by speeding up hospitals’ abilities to test, though some worried the changes fell short in reducing logistical burdens.
President Trump said he will hold a news conference on coronavirus developments at 1:30 PM at the White House.

One of three new community-transmitted cases confirmed Friday on the West Coast include an elementary school employee in Oregon, district officials said.
France banned gatherings of more than 5,000 people after the Health Ministry confirmed 19 new cases late Friday, a nearly 100 percent increase since the day before.
Iran reported more than 200 new cases of the virus causing covid-19 — as well as nine deaths, adding to the highest death toll from the virus outside of China.
China reported its lowest manufacturing numbers on record for the month of February, as the epidemic-stricken economy ground to an unprecedented standstill.

2:34 p.m.
Breaking: A person diagnosed with coronavirus in King County in Washington state has died

In a statement released Saturday, the Washington State Department of Health and Seattle and King County health officials confirmed the death and said they would offer more details at a 1 p.m. news conference, local time. They will discuss the death and new confirmed cases in the county.

“It is a sad day in our state as we learn that a Washingtonian has died from COVID-19,” Washington Gov. Jay Inslee (D) said in a statement. “Our hearts go out to his family and friends. We will continue to work toward a day where no one dies from this virus.”

Inslee said the state departments of health and emergency management are working closely with local officials to strengthen preparedness and response efforts.

“I am committed to keeping Washingtonians healthy, safe and informed,” the governor said.

AFRICA: WHY MACHAR MAY NEVER AGAIN LEAVE JUBA ALIVE (Photos)

Image may be subject to copyright

Image may be subject to copyright

Image may be subject to copyright

Image may be subject to copyright

Image may be subject to copyright
CHANGE OF GUARDS - South Sudan has finally formed a transitional government of national unity with the renegade leader of the SPLA-IO, Dr. Riek Marchar becoming the first Vice President.

In September 2018, the worrying parties signed a power sharing agreement but could not finalize the negotiations over the formation of an 83,000 unified army, state boundaries and Marchar's security.

At independence in 2011, the country had 10 constitutional states but along the way, President Kiir increased them to 28 and later 32 states. According to the current peace deal, the country has reverted to the original 10 states but 3 administrative areas of Pibor, Ruweng and Abyei have also been created. However, Marchar has expressed dissatisfaction of the said three administrative areas and warned that it risked causing further problems. The state borders are vital because it will determine the division of power. Claimed by both the Dinka of Kiir and the Nuer of Marchar, the oil rich Ruweng area is the most contentious and witnessed heavy fighting during the recent civil war.  President Kiir said that his forces would be in charge of security in Juba as well as Marchar's protection.
        "I have taken responsibility of protection, as the unified forces are still under training," he said.

Riek Marchar said that they had agreed to form the government in two days on 22nd February.
     "We are still discussing on other things and I am hopeful we will resolve them all."

Riek Marchar was a top leader of the then rebel SPLM/A that was fighting against the government of Sudan for autonomy of Southern Sudan. In 1991, he fell out with the SPLM/A and founded his own SPLM/A Nasir that was backed by Khartoum. It was later renamed SPLM-United after some Dinka founding members of SPLM/A defected from John Garang and joined Machar. Efforts by the government of Kenya and the USA State department to mediate between Machar and Garang in 1993 did not bear fruit. Between 1994 and 1997, with covert support from Khartoum, Machar's movement, then renamed Southern Sudan Independence Movement/Army, fought serious battles against the SPLA. In 1997 Machar signed a peace agreement with Khartoum that saw him become the President of Southern States Coordinating Council and Commander in Chief of Southern Sudan Defence Forces (SSDF).

In 2002, he resigned from the government of Sudan and took care of his own SSDF-Democratic Front. In January 2002, Machar signed an agreement with John Garang to merge his SSDF with the SPLA. With the end of the civil war in 2005, Machar became the Vice President of the Government of Southern Sudan and SPLM Co-chairman of the Joint Executive political Committee. In August 2005, the SPLM/A supreme leader, John Garang died in a Ugandan helicopter crash while returning to South Sudan from visiting Museveni. Silva Kirr took over leadership of the SPLA and Marchar became the Vice President of the autonomous Southern Sudan. In July 2011, when South Sudan gained it's independence, Machar became the Vice President of the Government of South Sudan. In February 2013, Marchar publicly declared his intention to challenge Kiir for the presidency of South Sudan at the scheduled July 2013 general elections.

Instead, President Kiir dismissed Machar from the position of First Vice President together with the entire cabinet and all Police Commanders except State Governors. In December 2013, Machar,together, with ten others were accused of plotting a coup. The security forces moved to finish Machar off before prompting serious clashes that claimed lives and property before Machar fled the capital, Juba. Museveni sent his army to intervene on the side of the Kiir government. Machar had fled to the countryside and formed the SPLA-IO. During a late December press conference, Museveni issued a stern warning to rebel leader Riek Machar;
      “We gave Riek Machar some four days to respond, and if he doesn’t we shall have to go for him, all of us," Museveni warned. "I hear they are in the provinces trying to make trouble, but they will be defeated should they not come for peace.”

The above ultimatum escalated the conflict that continued to claim lives, property and displacement of tens of thousands of civilians. A ceasefire was secured in 2014 leading to the August 2015 Peace Agreement that saw Machar return to Juba in April 2016. Just a week after being sworn in as Vice President in July 2016, an attempt on the life of Machar with artillery and helicopter gunships in the capital Juba made him flee to Equatorial province. In October 2017, Machar was placed under house arrest in South Africa; from where he signed a peace deal with Kiir in September 2018 before Machar returned to Juba in October 2018. That peace deal was supposed to have taken effect in May 2019 but was delayed by failure to finalize negotiations. Another deadline was set for November 2019 but for the same reasons it could not take effect. Owing to that delay, Machar decided to stay in Khartoum from where he has now come to Juba.

The ethnic groups of South Sudan are related to the people of West Nile and Northern Uganda. Since the late 1980s, Museveni had been battling insurgent groups from these regions whose bases were then located in Southern Sudan. These groups got support from the government of Khartoum and to some extent, the rebel SPLA, more especially the Riek Machar faction and former SPLA Secretary General Pagan Anum who was alleged to be their linkman to Khartoum. Museveni was used by the USA to support the SPLA and independence of South Sudan on grounds that it would act as a barrier to the spread of Islamic Fundamentalism by Khartoum. However, Museveni feared that a strong independent South Sudan would obviously be closer to the the ethnic communities of the northern and West Nile region of Uganda. It's for the same reasons that he was greatly troubled by the possible ascendancy to power by the Luo of western Kenya. It is for these reasons that the strong leader of the SPLA, John Garang had to die in a helicopter crash.

With the weak Silva Kiir in charge, Museveni had a puppet government in South Sudan. The LRA insurgents were ejected from their bases in both northern Uganda and Southern Sudan before relocating to DRC and CAR. In December 2013, Museveni sent his army to aid Kiir in dealing a heavy blow on Riek Machar, Pagan Anum and others. To Museveni's advantage, the ensuing civil strife weakened the young nation. Opportunistically, by the time Khartoum's Gen. Bashir was ousted from power, Bashir had become Museveni's closest regional ally. Similarly,Museveni's attempt to manipulate the post Bashir government seem to be failing. The presence in Uganda of over one million refugees from South Sudan has been Museveni's cash cow that he is not about to let go.  The proceeds of the rampant corruption by the Silva Kiir government end up boosting the economy in Kampala where South Sudanes top government and military officials to spend their loot. Like in any other communist dictatorship, there are other individuals and groups opposed to Silva Kiir who have the potential to be sponsored by Museveni. It won't even be surprising if Museveni soon shifts his support to Machar against Kiir.

With growing marginalization of Uganda's northern region and its growing calls for cessation, a strong and stable South Sudan does not favour Museveni's strategic regional interests. In his estimates, just like Kenya's Raila Odinga, the Riek Machar presidency in South Sudan would be disastrous to Museveni's interests. Therefore, this time around, Machar may never survive another plot against his life in Juba. Once Machar is out of the picture, Museveni will have a free day in South Sudan.

INFORMATION IS POWER AND THE PROBLEM OF UGANDA IS MUSEVENISM

UGANDA: Your social media posts tell the sorry state of Uganda's education


By MARTHA LEAH NANGALAMA

Well, it all started like this. One of my Editors in Kampala (he is kind of my boss) posted something on Twitter where he tagged me. I do not even remember the original topic. Why must I not remember the topic is simple. As I was here busy minding my own BiziWaks as you all should do, I commented something. I do not remember what I even said.

Naturally, when @RugyendoQuotes (aka RedPepper CEO, Founder) posts or tweets, Ugandans fall over back wards and over and try to get his attention. They be going like this 'attacking Leah" for even the stupidest excuses in the world. Then, worse, they write horrific English I naturally forget the topic and just hit back at them for bastardizing the Queen's Language.

I am assuming that by now, all my followers on all social media platforms know that I got a D1 in English Literature. That is a Distinction. It is more or less like getting a perfect mark in a subject. Oh yesssss, my English has taken me places. Never mind that I also got a D1 in History and a D1 in Geography. Although, I am unsure of how these two other subjects have helped my life.

BACK TO THE STORY:
This immunised kid aka Museveni's Muijukuru comments on the tweet in terrible writing using abbreviations. Someone has to act. These young people are all over the Internet showing the world that Uganda has only illiterate people. We are gonna change this misconception by tripling OTT so that we can keep only the yIntelleketchos on social media. Abana tubakooye. Let them go back to P3 and learn how to write English.
====

UGANDA: I promised my sister that I would not abuse anyone today. In fact, yesterday, I promised our Priest that I would spend LENT, a whole 40 days of deprivation thus: For the lent period of 2020 (Dwendi duendi), I shall hold my tongue and call no one an IDIOT on social media. OOPS!!  Here we go.

https://twitter.com/AlbertKJ3/status/1233778359181684737
Replying to
@RugyendoQuotes @mlnangalama  and 9 others
@HEBobiwine  @JChameleone
 man how will u feel when i become the President of this nation and ur also the Lord mayor of k'laFisted hand.

https://twitter.com/mlnangalama/status/1233787182659330050
MarthaLeah Nangalama @mlnangalama
2m
Replying to @AlbertKJ3  @RugyendoQuotes  and 11 others
You will never become president of Uganda. You can neither write nor critically analyse. Your stupidity is so thick it is hurting my eyes. Uganda needs people who can write IMPECCABLE English. Not u i ur ...nebilala nebilala. In fact, I should even block your UPE kabina.

Pope sick a 2nd day with apparent cold, cancels audiences

Pope Francis wipes his nose during the Ash Wednesday Mass opening Lent, Feb. 26, 2020. (AP/Gregorio Borgia)
Vatican remains mum on what is ailing the pontiff; development comes as Italy struggles to contain coronavirus spread


VATICAN CITY — Pope Francis canceled his official audiences Friday after apparently coming down with a cold.

The Vatican said the 83-year-old pontiff celebrated morning Mass as usual and greeted participants at the end. He planned to keep his private meeting schedule as planned, but decided to cancel the official audiences, the Vatican said.

The Vatican hasn’t said what exactly Francis has come down with, but he was coughing and blowing his nose during Ash Wednesday Mass this week.

On Thursday, he canceled a planned trip across town to celebrate Mass with Rome priests.

His illness comes amid an outbreak of the coronavirus in Italy that has sickened more than 650 people, almost all of them in the north. Rome had three cases, but all three recovered.

The Argentine pope has generally enjoyed good health. He lost part of one lung as a young man because of a respiratory illness, and suffers from sciatica, which makes walking difficult.

Today in History - February 29 -- Library of Congress

Today in History - February 29

On February 29, 1704, between 200 and 300 French soldiers and their Native American allies raided the tiny frontier settlement of Deerfield, Massachusetts. Continue reading.

Click here to search Today in History for other historic moments.



Read more on https://loc.gov Today in History - February 29

NTVUganda has added Lt Gen.Awany applauds LDUs for good work video

Lt Gen.Awany applauds LDUs for good work



The commander of the reserve force, Lt. Gen. Charles Otema Awany, says the Local Defence Unit forces have been instrumental in fighting crime in the central part of Uganda. He urged the LDUs who have graduated from Lugore training wing in Gulu to also fight crime in Gulu, and also help fight cattle rustling in Acholi, perpetuated by Karimojong elements. The LDU trainees have been taken through different training areas but have been praised for their high discipline during the training. #NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit http://www.ntv.co.ug Follow us on Twitter http://www.twitter.com/ntvuganda Like our Facebook page https://ift.tt/1bbEIWm

NTVUganda has added Makerere University launches Gender Identity Week video

Makerere University launches Gender Identity Week



The school of women and gender studies in Makerere say they are focusing on how to address the gender inequities in the country, which should beyond femininity sufferings but also to include men the struggles of achieving Gender equality. While launching the gender Identity week, the school of women an gender studies says they are looking at how to strengthen what has already been achieved. #NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit http://www.ntv.co.ug Follow us on Twitter http://www.twitter.com/ntvuganda Like our Facebook page https://ift.tt/1bbEIWm

NTVUganda has added Richard Mucunguzi wins first monthly series in Serena Kigo golf video

Richard Mucunguzi wins first monthly series in Serena Kigo golf



Richard Mucunguzi emerged as the first winner of the Lake Victoria Serena Kigo members monthly series which will climax in December when the overall winner will be crowned. Mucunguzi garnered 42 points after eighteen holes while former Works’ Minister John Nasasira emerged runners up with 39 points #NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit http://www.ntv.co.ug Follow us on Twitter http://www.twitter.com/ntvuganda Like our Facebook page https://ift.tt/1bbEIWm

NTVUganda has added Local initiatives increase climate resilience in Kasese video

Local initiatives increase climate resilience in Kasese



In a period of seven years, an estimated 12,500 have been displaced from the place they called home by the excessive flooding in the mountainous district of Kasese. An accounted seven people were killed by the deadly disasters in the same period six of whom were swept in 2013 after River Nyamwamba burst its banks. The damage on infrastructure was enormous. However, various interventions including Disaster Response and Climate Change Adaptation programs have seen this become history. #NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit http://www.ntv.co.ug Follow us on Twitter http://www.twitter.com/ntvuganda Like our Facebook page https://ift.tt/1bbEIWm

NTVUganda has added NRM starts mobilisation campaign drive in Koboko video

NRM starts mobilisation campaign drive in Koboko



NRM leaders in Koboko district have started a mobilization campaign for their party ahead of the 2021 general elections. In the 2021 general elections president Museveni scored highly in the district, with NRM candidates winning all the parliamentary seats. The state minister for Investment and Koboko district woman MP Evelyn Anite says they are mobilizing by giving accountability for the projects they promised in their manifesto #NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit http://www.ntv.co.ug Follow us on Twitter http://www.twitter.com/ntvuganda Like our Facebook page https://ift.tt/1bbEIWm

NTVUganda has added Rotary fundraises for Mengo blood bank video

Rotary fundraises for Mengo blood bank



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The Satanic Verses controversy - Book by Salman Rushdie


Salman Rushdie, the author of the novel The Satanic Verses

Ayatollah Khomeini, then Supreme Leader of Iran who issued the fatwa

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Satanic_Verses_controversy

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"Rushdie Affair" redirects here. For the 1990 Daniel Pipes book, see The Rushdie Affair: The Novel, the Ayatollah, and the West.

This article is about the controversy surrounding the Salman Rushdie novel. For the controversy surrounding the religious verses, see Satanic Verses.
Satanic Verses controversy

The Satanic Verses controversy, also known as the Rushdie Affair, was the heated and frequently violent reaction of Muslims to the publication of Salman Rushdie's novel The Satanic Verses, which was first published in the United Kingdom in 1988 and inspired in part by the life of Muhammad. Many Muslims accused Rushdie of blasphemy or unbelief and in 1989 the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini of Iran issued a fatwa ordering Muslims to kill Rushdie. Numerous killings, attempted killings, and bombings resulted in response to the novel.[1]

The Iranian government backed the fatwa against Rushdie until 1998, when the succeeding government of Iranian President Mohammad Khatami said it no longer supported the killing of Rushdie.[2] However, the fatwa remains in place.[3]

The issue was said to have divided "Muslims from Westerners along the fault line of culture,"[4][5] and to have pitted a core Western value of freedom of expression—that no one "should be killed, or face a serious threat of being killed, for what they say or write"[6]—against the view of many Muslims—that no one should be free to "insult and malign Muslims" by disparaging the "honour of the Prophet".[7] English writer Hanif Kureishi called the fatwa "one of the most significant events in postwar literary history".[8]

Even before the publication of The Satanic Verses, the books of Salman Rushdie had stoked controversy. Rushdie saw his role as a writer "as including the function of antagonist to the state".[9] His second book Midnight's Children angered Indira Gandhi because it seemed to suggest "that Mrs. Gandhi was responsible for the death of her husband through neglect".[10] His 1983 roman à clef Shame "took an aim on Pakistan, its political characters, its culture and its religion... [It covered] a central episode in Pakistan's internal life, which portrays as a family squabble between Iskander Harappa (Zulfikar Ali Bhutto) and his successor and executioner Raza Hyder (Zia ul-Haq)... 'The Virgin Ironpants'... has been identified as Benazir Bhutto, a Prime Minister of Pakistan".[10]

Positions Rushdie took as a committed leftist prior to the publication of his book were the source of some controversy. He defended many of those who would later attack him during the controversy. Rushdie forcefully denounced the Shah's government and supported the Islamic Revolution of Iran, at least in its early stages. He condemned the US bombing raid on Tripoli in 1986 but found himself threatened by Libya's leader Muammar al-Gaddafi three years later.[11] He wrote a book bitterly critical of US foreign policy in general and its war in Nicaragua in particular, for example calling the United States government, "the bandit posing as sheriff".[12] After the Ayatollah's fatwa however, he was accused by Iranian government of being "an inferior CIA agent".[13] A few years earlier, an official jury appointed by a ministry of the Iranian Islamic government had bestowed an award on the Persian translation of Rushdie's book Shame, which up until then was the only time a government had awarded Rushdie's work a prize.[citation needed]
Controversial elements of The Satanic Verses[edit]
Further information: Satanic Verses

The title, "The Satanic Verses," immediately sparked "[V]ehement protest against Rushdie's book". The title refers to a legend of the Islamic Prophet Mohammad, when a few verses were supposedly spoken by him as part of the Qur'an, and then withdrawn on the grounds that the devil had sent them to deceive Mohammad into thinking they came from God. These "Satanic Verses" are said to have been revealed in between verses twenty and twenty-one in surah An-Najim of the Qur'an,[14] and by accounts from Tabari, but is seldom mentioned in the first biography of Mohammad by Ibn Ishaq. The verses also appear in other accounts of the prophet's life. They permitted prayer to three pre-Islamic Meccan goddesses: Al-lāt, Uzza, and Manāt—a violation of monotheism.[15] The utterance and withdrawal of the so-called Satanic Verses forms an important sub-plot in the novel, which recounts several episodes in the life of Muhammad. The phrase Arab historians and later Muslims used to describe the incident of the withdrawn verses was not "Satanic verses", but the gharaniq verses; the phrase 'Satanic verses' was unknown to Muslims, and was coined by Western academics specialising in the study of Middle Eastern culture. The story itself is not found in the six Sahih of the sunni or the shiite sources, so much so that Muraghi, in his commentary, says: "These traditions are undoubtedly a fabrication of the heretics and foreign hands, and have not been found in any of the authentic books" ...[16][17] According to Daniel Pipes,[18] when attention was drawn to a book with this title, "Muslims found [it] incredibly sacrilegious", and took it to imply that the book's author claimed that verses of the Qur'an were "the work of the Devil".[15]

According to McRoy (2007), other controversial elements included the use of the name Mahound, said to be a derogatory term for Muhammad used by the English during the Crusades; the use of the term Jahilia, denoting the 'time of ignorance' before Islam, for the holy city of Mecca; the use of the name of the Angel Gibreel (Gabriel) for a film star, of the name of Saladin, the great Muslim hero of the Crusades, for a devil, and the name of Ayesha the wife of Muhammad for a fanatical Indian girl who leads her village on a fatal pilgrimage. Moreover, the brothel of the city of Jahilia was staffed by prostitutes with the same names as Muhammad's wives,[19] who are viewed by Muslims as 'the Mothers of all Believers'.[20]

Other issues many Muslims have found offensive include Abraham being called a "bastard" for casting Hagar and Ishmael in the desert;[21] and a character named Salman the Persian who serves as one of the Prophet's scribes, an apparent reference to the story, controversial among Muslims, of a Meccan convert by the name of Ibn Abi Sarh, who left Islam after the Prophet failed to notice small changes he had made in the dictation of the Qur'an.[22][unreliable source?]

Daniel Pipes identified other more general issues in the book likely to have angered pious Muslims: A complaint in the book by one of Mahound's companions: "rules about every damn thing, if a man farts, let him turn his face to the wind, a rule about which hand to use for the purpose of cleaning one's behind ...", which was said to mix up "Islamic law with its opposite and with the author's whimsy";[19] the prophet of Rushdie's novel, as he lies dying, being visited in a dream by the Goddess Al-lāt, on the grounds that this suggested either that she exists or that the prophet thought she did; the angel Gibreel's vision of the Supreme Being in another dream as "not abstract in the least. He saw, sitting on the bed, a man of about the same age as himself", balding, wearing glasses and "seeming to suffer from dandruff".[23] A complaint by one of the characters about communal violence in India: "Fact is, religious faith, which encodes the highest aspirations of human race, is now, in our country, the servant of lowest instincts, and God is the creature of evil".[23]

The Guardian newspaper published on 14 September 2012 a series of recollections of various British people involved in the controversy. Lisa Appignanesi, ex-president of English PEN, observed "Intransigence is never so great as when it feels it has a god on its side." One of the lawyers involved, Geoffrey Robertson QC, rehearsed the arguments and replies made when 13 Muslim barristers had lodged a formal indictment against Rushdie for the crime of blasphemous libel: it was said that God was described in the book as "the Destroyer of Man", yet he is described as such in the Old Testament and the Book of Revelation, especially of men who are unbelievers or enemies of the Jews; that the book contained criticisms of the prophet Abraham, yet the Islamic, Christian and Jewish traditions themselves see Abraham as not without fault and deserving of criticism; that Rushdie referred to Mohammed as "Mahound", a conjurer, a magician and a false prophet, yet these remarks are made by a drunken apostate, a character with whom neither reader nor author has any sympathy; that the book insults the wives of the Prophet by having whores use their names, yet the wives are explicitly said to be chaste and the adoption of their names by whores is to symbolise the corruption of the city then being described (perhaps symbolising Mecca in its pre-Islamic state); that the book vilified the companions of the Prophet, calling them "bums from Persia" and "clowns", yet the character saying this is a hack poet hired to write propaganda against the Prophet and does not reflect the author's beliefs; that the book criticised Islam for having too many rules and seeking to control every aspect of life, yet while characters in the book do make such remarks these cannot constitute blasphemy since they do not vilify God or the Prophet.[24]
Early reaction[edit]

Before the publication of The Satanic Verses, the publisher received "warnings from the publisher's editorial consultant" that the book might be controversial.[10] Later, Rushdie would reflect upon the time that the book was about to be published. Speaking to an interviewer, he said, "I expected a few mullahs would be offended, call me names, and then I could defend myself in public... I honestly never expected anything like this".[10]

The Satanic Verses was published by Viking Penguin on 26 September 1988 in the UK, and on 22 February 1989 in the US.[10] Upon its publication the book garnered considerable critical acclaim in the United Kingdom. On 8 November 1988, the work received the Whitbread Award for novel of the year,[10] worth £20,000.[25] According to one observer, "almost all the British book reviewers" were unaware of the book's connection to Islam because Rushdie has used the name Mahound instead of Muhammad for his chapter on Islam.[19]
Muslim response and book bannings[edit]

After the book was first published in the United Kingdom (in September 1988), there were protests by Muslims that predominantly took place in India and the UK. When the book was published in February 1989 in the United States, it received renewed attention, and worldwide protests began to take a more violent form.[citation needed]

In Islamic communities, the novel became instantly controversial, because of what some Muslims considered blasphemous references. Rushdie was accused of misusing freedom of speech.[26] By October 1988, letters and phone calls arrived at Viking Penguin from Muslims, angry with the book and demanding that it be withdrawn.[10] Before the end of the month, the import of the book was banned in India, although possession of the book is not a criminal offence.[10][27]

In November 1988, it was also banned in Bangladesh, Sudan, and South Africa. By December 1988, it was also banned in Sri Lanka.[10]

In Britain on 2 December 1988, 7,000 Muslims in the town of Bolton staged the first ever demonstration against The Satanic Verses. After the Friday prayers, a certain section of the congregation marched from the Deobandi run Zakariyya Jame Masjid to the town centre and then burned the book. The organisers claimed "It was a peaceful protest, and we burned the book to try and attract public attention".[28]

The City of Bradford gained international attention in January 1989 when some of its members organised a public book-burning of The Satanic Verses, evoking as the journalist Robert Winder recalled "images of medieval (not to mention Nazi) intolerance".[29]

In February, when the US edition was published, a new round of reviews and criticism began. March 1989 saw it banned in Kenya, Thailand, Tanzania, Indonesia, and Singapore.[10] The last nation to ban the book was Venezuela, in June 1989.[10]

On 12 February 1989, a 10,000-strong protest against Rushdie and the book took place in Islamabad, Pakistan. Six protesters were killed in an attack on the American Cultural Center, and an American Express office was ransacked.[citation needed]
Attacks[edit]

In the United States, the FBI was notified of 78 threats to bookstores in early March 1989, thought to be a small proportion of the total number of threats. B. Dalton bookstore chain received 30 threats in less than three hours.[citation needed] Bombings of book stores included two in Berkeley, California. In New York, the office of a community newspaper, The Riverdale Press, was all but destroyed by firebombs following the publication of an editorial defending the right to read the novel and criticizing the bookstores that pulled it from their shelves.[30] But the United Kingdom was the country where violence against bookstores occurred most often and persisted the longest. Two large bookstores in Charing Cross Road, London, (Collets and Dillons) were bombed on 9 April. In May, explosions went off in the town of High Wycombe and again in London, on Kings Road. Other bombings included one at a large London department store (Liberty's), in connection with the Penguin Bookshop inside the store, and at the Penguin store in York. Unexploded devices were found at Penguin stores in Guildford, Nottingham, and Peterborough.[citation needed]

In the United States, it was unavailable in about one-third of bookstores. In many others that carried the book, it was kept under the counter.[31]
Fatwa by Ayatollah Khomeini[edit]

On 14 February, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the Supreme Leader of Iran and one of the most prominent Shi'a Muslim leaders, issued a fatwa calling for the death of Rushdie and his publishers. This created a major international incident that persisted for decades.

Broadcast on Iranian radio, the judgment read:


We are from Allah and to Allah we shall return. I am informing all brave Muslims of the world that the author of The Satanic Verses, a text written, edited, and published against Islam, the Prophet of Islam, and the Qur'an, along with all the editors and publishers aware of its contents, are condemned to death. I call on all valiant Muslims wherever they may be in the world to kill them without delay, so that no one will dare insult the sacred beliefs of Muslims henceforth. And whoever is killed in this cause will be a martyr, Allah Willing. Meanwhile if someone has access to the author of the book but is incapable of carrying out the execution, he should inform the people so that [Rushdie] is punished for his actions.
— Rouhollah al-Mousavi al-Khomeini.[32]

Khomeini did not give a legal reasoning for his judgement. It is thought to be based on the ninth chapter of the Qur'an, called At-Tawba, verse 61: "Some of them hurt the prophet by saying, 'He is all ears!' Say, 'It is better for you that he listens to you. He believes in God, and trusts the believers. He is a mercy for those among you who believe.' Those who hurt God's messenger have incurred a painful retribution".[33] However it was not explained how that chapter could support such a judgement.

Over the next few days, Iranian officials offered a bounty of $6 million for killing Rushdie, who was thus forced to live under police protection for the next nine years. On 7 March 1989, the United Kingdom and Iran broke diplomatic relations over the Rushdie controversy.[34][35]
Rushdie's apology and reaction[edit]
Rushdie's apology[edit]

On 18 February, Iran's President Ali Khamenei (who would later that year succeed Khomeini as Supreme Leader) suggested that if Rushdie "apologises and disowns the book, people may forgive him".[36] Following this, Rushdie issued "a carefully worded statement",[36] saying:


I recognize that Muslims in many parts of the world are genuinely distressed by the publication of my novel. I profoundly regret the distress the publication has occasioned to the sincere followers of Islam. Living as we do in a world of many faiths, this experience has served to remind us that we must all be conscious of the sensibilities of others.[36]

This was relayed to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tehran "via official channels" before being released to the press.[36]
Rejection of Rushdie's apology[edit]

On 19 February 1990, Ayatollah Khomeini's office replied:

The imperialist foreign media falsely alleged that the officials of the Islamic Republic have said the sentence of death on the author of The Satanic Verses will be retracted if he repents. Imam Khomeini has said:

This is denied 100%. Even if Salman Rushdie repents and become the most pious man of all time, it is incumbent on every Muslim to employ everything he has got, his life and wealth, to send him to Hell.

The Imam added:

If a non-Muslim becomes aware of Rushdie's whereabouts and has the ability to execute him quicker than Muslims, it is incumbent on Muslims to pay a reward or a fee in return for this action.[37]

McRoy (2007) stated that Khomeini's interpretation of the Islamic law that led him to refuse the apology follows the same line of reasoning as Al-Shafi'i (9th century jurist), who in his Risala (Maliki Manual 37.19 Crimes Against Islam) ruled that an "apostate is also killed unless he repents... Whoever abuses the Messenger of God ... is to be executed, and his repentance is not accepted".[20]
Support for Khomeini's fatwa[edit]

In Britain, the Union of Islamic Students' Associations in Europe issued a statement offering its services to Khomeini. Despite incitement to murder being illegal in the United Kingdom,[38] one London property developer told reporters, "If I see him, I will kill him straight away. Take my name and address. One day I will kill him".[39]

Other leaders, while supporting the fatwa, claimed that British Muslims were not allowed to carry out the fatwa themselves.[why?] Prominent amongst these were the Muslim Parliament and its leader Kalim Siddiqui, and after his death in 1996, his successor, Ghayasuddin Siddiqui. His support for the fatwa continued, even after the Iranian leadership said it would not pursue the fatwa,[40] and re-iterated his support in 2000.[41]

Meanwhile, in America, the director of the Near East Studies Center at UCLA, George Sabbagh, told an interviewer that Khomeini was "completely within his rights" to call for Rushdie's death.[42]
Main article: Lebanon Hostage Crisis

In May 1989 in Beirut, Lebanon, British citizen Jackie Mann was abducted "in response to Iran's fatwa against Salman Rushdie for the publication of the Satanic Verses and more specifically, for his refuge and protection in the United Kingdom".[43] He joined several Westerners held hostage there. Two months earlier a photograph of three teachers held hostage was released by Islamic Jihad for the Liberation of Palestine with the message that it "would take revenge against" all institutions and organisations that insulted in one way or another "members of the Prophet Mohammed's family".[44]

McRoy (2007) claimed that "In Islamic society a blasphemer is held in the same hostile contempt as a pedophile in the West. Just as few if any people in the West mourn the murder of a child molester, few Muslims mourn the killing of a blasphemer".[20]
Criticism of Khomeini's fatwa[edit]

Khomeini's fatwa was condemned across the Western world by governments on the grounds that it violated the universal human rights of free speech, freedom of religion, and that Khomeini had no right to condemn to death a citizen of another country living in that country.[citation needed] The twelve members of the European Economic Community removed their ambassadors from Tehran for three weeks.[35]
On Islamic grounds[edit]

In addition to criticism of the death sentence on the basis of humans rights, the sentence was also criticised on Islamic grounds. According to Bernard Lewis, a death warrant without trial, defence and other legal aspects of sharia violates Islamic jurisprudence. In Islamic fiqh, apostasy by a mentally sound adult male is indeed a capital crime. However, fiqh also:

... lays down procedures according to which a person accused of an offense is to be brought to trial, confronted with his accuser, and given the opportunity to defend himself. A judge will then give a verdict and if he finds the accused guilty, pronounce sentence... Even the most rigorous and extreme of the classical jurist only require a Muslim to kill anyone who insults the Prophet in his hearing and in his presence. They say nothing about a hired killing for a reported insult in a distant country.[45]

Other Islamic scholars outside Iran took issue with the fact that the sentence was not passed by an Islamic court,[39][46] or that it did not limit its "jurisdiction only [to] countries under Islamic law".[33] Muhammad Hussan ad-Din, a theologian at Al-Azhar University, argued "Blood must not be shed except after a trial [when the accused has been] given a chance to defend himself and repent".[39] Abdallah al-Mushidd, head of Azhar's Fatwā Council stated "We must try the author in a legal fashion as Islam does not accept killing as a legal instrument".[46]

The Islamic Jurisprudence Academy in Mecca urged that Rushdie be tried and, if found guilty, be given a chance to repent, (p. 93) and Ayatollah Mehdi Rohani, head of the Shi'i community in Europe and a cousin of Khomeini, criticised Khomeini for 'respect[ing] neither international law nor that of Islam.'[47]

There was also criticism of the fatwa issued against Rushdie's publishers. According to Daniel Pipes: "The Sharia clearly establishes that disseminating false information is not the same as expressing it. "Transmitting blasphemy is not blasphemy" (naql al-kufr laysa kufr). In addition, the publishers were not Muslim and so could not be "sentenced under the Islamic laws of apostasy". If there was another legal justification for sentencing them to death, "Khomeini failed to provide" it.[48]

Iran's response to calls for a trial was to denounce its Islamic proponents as "deceitful". President Khomeini accused them of attempting to use religious law as "a flag under which they can crush revolutionary Islam".[49]
Questions of political motivation[edit]

Some speculate that the fatwa (or at least the reaffirmation of the death threat four days later) was issued with motives other than a sense of duty to protect Islam by punishing blasphemy/apostasy. Namely:
To divide Muslims from the West by "starkly highlight[ing] the conflicting political and intellectual traditions" of the two civilisations.[4] Khomeini had often warned Muslims of the dangers of the West – "the agents of imperialism [who] are busy in every corner of the Islamic world drawing our youth away from us with their evil propaganda".[50] He knew from news reports the book was already rousing the anger of Muslims.
To distract the attention of his Iranian countrymen from his capitulation seven months earlier to a truce with Iraq (20 July 1988) ending the long and bloody Iran–Iraq War (a truce Iraq would have eagerly given him six years and hundreds of thousands of lives earlier),[51][52] and strengthen the revolutionary ardour and morale[53] of Iranians worn down by the bloodshed and privation of that war. According to journalist Robin Wright, "as the international furore grew, Khomeini declared that the book had been a 'godsend' that had helped Iran out of a 'naïve foreign policy'".[33][54]
To win back the interest in and support for the Islamic Revolution among the 90% of the population of the Muslim world that was Sunni, rather than Shia like Khomeini. The Iran–Iraq War had also alienated Sunni, who not only were offended by its bloodshed, but tended to favour Iran's Sunni-led opponent, Iraq. At least one observer speculated that Khomeini's choice of the issue of disrespect for the Prophet Muhammad was a particularly shrewd tactic, as Sunni were inclined to suspect Shia of being more interested in the Imams Ali and Husayn ibn Ali than in the Prophet.[55]
To steal the thunder of Khomeini's two least favourite enemy states, Saudi Arabia and the United States, who were basking in the glory of the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan. This withdrawal, seen by many as a great victory of Islamic faith over an atheist superpower, was made possible by billions of dollars in aid to the Afghan mujahideen by those two countries. Khomeini issued the fatwa on 14 February 1989. The next day came the official announcement of the completion of the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, lost in the news cycle of the fatwa.[56]
To gain the upper hand from Saudi Arabia in the struggle for international leadership of the Muslim world. Each led rival blocs of international institutions and media networks, and "the Saudi government, it should be remembered, had led the anti-Rushdie campaign for months".[55] Unlike the more conservative Saudi Arabia, however, Iran was ideologically and militantly anti-western and could take a more militant stand outside international law.
Questions of personal motivation[edit]

Despite claims by Iranian officials that "Rushdie's book did not insult Iran or Iranian leaders" and so they had no selfish personal motivation to attack the book, the book does include an eleven-page sketch of Khomeini's stay in Paris that could well be considered an insult to him. It describes him as having "grown monstrous, lying in the palace forecourt with his mouth yawning open at the gates; as the people march through the gates he swallows them whole". In the words of one observer, "If this is not an insult, Khomeini was far more tolerant than one might suppose",[57] John Crowley has noted that the section of the book depicting the Khomeini-like character was selected to be read publicly by Rushdie in the promotional events leading up to and following the book's release.[58] In Crowley's opinion, the fatwa was most likely declared because of this section of the novel and its public exposure, rather than the overall parodic treatment of Islam.[58]
Attempts to revoke the fatwa[edit]

On 24 September 1998, as a precondition to the restoration of diplomatic relations with Britain, the Iranian government, then headed by moderate Muhammad Khatami, gave a public commitment that it would "neither support nor hinder assassination operations on Rushdie".[59][60] However, some in Iran have continued to reaffirm the death sentence.[61] In early 2005, Khomeini's fatwa was reaffirmed by Iran's Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, in a message to Muslim pilgrims making the annual pilgrimage to Mecca.[62] Additionally, the Revolutionary Guards have declared that the death sentence on him is still valid.[63] Iran has rejected requests to withdraw the fatwa on the basis that only the person who issued it may withdraw it,[62] with Ruhollah Khomeini having died in 1989.

On 14 February 2006, the Iranian state news agency reported that the fatwa will remain in place permanently.[3]

In 2007, Salman Rushdie reported that he still receives a "sort of Valentine's card" from Iran each year on 14 February letting him know the country has not forgotten the vow to kill him. He was also quoted saying, "It's reached the point where it's a piece of rhetoric rather than a real threat".[64]
Social and political fallout[edit]

One of the immediate consequences of the fatwa was a worsening of Islamic-Western relations.
Heightened tension[edit]

Rushdie lamented that the controversy fed the Western stereotype of "the backward, cruel, rigid Muslim, burning books and threatening to kill the blasphemer",[65] while another British writer compared the Ayatollah Khomeini "with a familiar ghost from the past – one of those villainous Muslim clerics, a Faqir of Ipi or a mad Mullah, who used to be portrayed, larger than life, in popular histories of the British Empire".[66] Media expressions of this included a banner headline in the popular British newspaper the Daily Mirror referring to Khomeini as "that Mad Mullah".[67]

The Independent newspaper worried that Muslim book burning demonstrations were "following the example of the Inquisition and Hitler's National Socialists",[68] and that if Rushdie was killed, "it would be the first burning of a heretic in Europe in two centuries".[69] Peregrine Worsthorne of the Sunday Telegraph feared that with Europe's growing Muslim population, "Islamic fundamentalism is rapidly growing into a much bigger threat of violence and intolerance than anything emanating from, say, the fascist National Front; and a threat, moreover, infinitely more difficult to contain since it is virtually impossible to monitor, let alone stamp out ...".[70]

On the Muslim side, the Iranian government saw the book as part of a British conspiracy against Islam. It broke diplomatic relations with UK on 7 March 1989 giving the explanation that "in the past two centuries Britain has been in the frontline of plots and treachery against Islam and Muslims", It accused the British of sponsoring Rushdie's book to use it as a political and cultural tact on earlier military plots that no longer worked.[71] It also saw itself as the victor of the controversy, with the European Community countries capitulating under Iranian pressure. "When Europeans saw that their economic interests in Muslim countries could be damaged, they began to correct their position on the issue of the insulting book. Every official started to condemn the book in one way or another. When they realised that Iran's reaction, its breaking of diplomatic relations with London, could also include them, they quickly sent back their ambassadors to Tehran to prevent further Iranian reaction".[72]
Book sales[edit]


Persian Samizdat edition of Salman Rushdie's Satanic Verses c.2000

Although British bookseller W.H. Smith sold "a mere hundred copies a week of the book in mid-January 1989", it "flew off the shelves" following the fatwa. In America it sold an "unprecedented" five times more copies than the number two book, Star by Danielle Steel, selling more than 750,000 copies of the book by May 1989. B. Dalton, a bookstore chain that decided not to stock the book for security reasons, changed its mind when it found the book "was selling so fast that even as we tried to stop it, it was flying off the shelves".[73][74] Rushdie earned about $2 million within the first year of the book's publication,[75] and the book is Viking's all-time best seller.[76]
Rushdie[edit]

The author of the book himself was not killed or injured as many militants wished, but visibly frustrated by a life locked in 24-hour armed guard – alternately defiant against his would-be killers and attempting overtures of reconciliation against the death threat. A week after the death threat, and after his unsuccessful apology to the Iranian government, Rushdie described succumbing to "a curious lethargy, the soporific torpor that overcomes ... while under attack";[77] then, a couple of weeks after that, wrote a poem vowing "not to shut up" but "to sing on, in spite of attacks".[78] But in June, following the death of Khomeini, he asked his supporters "to tone down their criticism of Iran".

His wife, Marianne Wiggins, reported that in the first few months following the fatwa the couple moved 56 times, once every three days. In late July Rushdie separated from Wiggins, "the tension of being at the centre of an international controversy, and the irritations of spending all hours of the day together in seclusion", being too much for their "shaky" relationship.[79]

Late the next year Rushdie declared, "I want to reclaim my life", and in December signed a declaration "affirming his Islamic faith and calling for Viking-Penguin, the publisher of The Satanic Verses, neither to issue the book in paperback nor to allow it to be translated".[80] This also failed to move supporters of the fatwa and by mid-2005 Rushdie was condemning Islamic fundamentalism as a ... project of tyranny and unreason which wishes to freeze a certain view of Islamic culture in time and silence the progressive voices in the Muslim world calling for a free and prosperous future. ... along comes 9/11, and now many people say that, in hindsight, the fatwa was the prologue and this is the main event.[81]

A memoir of his years of hiding, titled Joseph Anton, was published on 18 September 2012. Joseph Anton was Rushdie's secret alias.[82]
Explanation of different reactions[edit]
Muslim[edit]

The passionate international rage of Muslims towards the book surprised many Western readers because the book was written in English, not Arabic, Urdu, Persian or other languages for which the majority of mother tongue speakers are Muslims; it was never published or even sold in the countries where most Muslims lived; and was a work of fiction—a demanding, densely written novel unlikely to appeal to the average reader.[83]

Some of the explanations for the unprecedented rage unleashed against the book were that:
The Satanic Verses was seen as a continuation of the long tradition of anti-Islamic sentiment in Western literature, portraying the core subject matter of the Prophet Muhammad and Islam in a derogatory manner[84]
Rushdie was living in the West and ought to be setting a good example for Islam and not siding "with the Orientalists".[85]

The view of many Muslims was that "Rushdie has portrayed the prophet of Islam as a brothel keeper".[86][dubiousdiscuss] "Rushdie accuses the prophet, particularly Muhammad of being like prostitutes".[87] "all who pray are sons of whores"[88] "The Prophet's wives are portrayed as women of the street, his homes as a public brothel and his companions as bandits".[89] The book, in fact, portrays prostitutes who "had each assumed the identity of one of Mahound's wives".[90]
Belief that fictional elements of the novel were not flights of imagination but lies. Complaints included that it was "neither a critical appraisal nor a piece of historical research",[91] that the novel failed to rely on "scientific and logical arguments",[92] its "lack of scientific, accurate or objective methods of research",[93] "unfounded lies", not being "serious or scientific",[94] "a total distortion of historical facts",[95] being "not at all an objective or scientific opinion".[96]
Unfamiliarity with the concept of free speech. The belief among many Muslims in or from the Middle East is that every country "has ... laws that prohibits any publications or utterances that tend to ridicule or defame Islam".[97] It followed that permission to publish a book that ridiculed or defamed Islam showed an anti-Islamic bias in those countries that permit publication. Although not enforced, and abolished completely in 2008, the United Kingdom had laws prohibiting blasphemy against the Christian religion.

The view of many Muslims that Britain, America and other Western countries are engaged in a war against Islam and what might on the surface appear to be the product of the imagination of an individual iconoclast author was actually a conspiracy on a national or transnational scale. Then Iranian president Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, for example, explained the alleged historical roots of the Rushdie book in a broadcast on Radio Tehran:

Whoever is familiar with the history of colonialism and the Islamic world knows that whenever they wanted to get a foothold in a place, the first thing they did in order to clear their paths – whether overtly or covertly – was to undermine the people's genuine Islamic morals.[98] and claimed an unnamed British foreign secretary once told the British parliament, "So long as the Qur'an is revered by Muslims, we will not be able to consolidate a foothold among the Muslims".[98]
A campaign by the international Islamist group Jamaat-e-Islami in retaliation for Rushdie's satire of them in the earlier book Shame. In Britain the group was represented by the UK Action Committee on Islamic Affairs".[99]

Among second generation Muslim immigrants in UK and elsewhere, a decline in interest in universalist "white Left" anti-racist/anti-imperialist politics, and rise in identity politics with its focus on the "defence of values and beliefs" of Muslim identity.[100]
Based on the book's title, and out of a general ignorance about what it references, a misunderstanding in the part of people in Muslim majority countries, where the book was not available, that led to the belief that the book was a "Satanist" critique of Islam and the Prophet Muhammad.
Western mainstream[edit]

Despite the passionate intensity of Muslim feeling on the issue no Western government banned The Satanic Verses. This is primarily because most Western governments explicitly or implicitly allow for freedom of expression, which includes forbidding censorship in the vast majority of cases. Western attitudes regarding freedom of expression differ from those in the Arab world because:
Westerners are less likely to be shocked by ridicule of religious figures. "Taboo and sacrilege are virtually dead in the West. Blasphemy is an old story and can no longer shock".[101] Examples of movies and books that aroused little or no protest in the west despite their blasphemy: Joseph Heller's God Knows, which turned "Biblical stories into pornographic fare";[102] Even The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, a book that was not only offensive and untrue but arguably very dangerous, having inspired the killing of Jews in Russia and contributed to Nazi ideology, was "freely available in the west".[102]

The idea widely accepted among writers that provocation in literature is not a right but is a duty, an important calling: "it is perhaps in the nature of modern art to be offensive ... in this century if we are not willing to risk giving offence, we have no claim to the title of artists".[103] Rushdie himself said: "I had spent my entire life as a writer in opposition, and indeed conceived the writer's role as including the function of antagonist to the state".[104]

The last point also explains why one of the few groups to speak out in Muslim countries against Khomeini and for Rushdie's right to publish his book were other writers.[105] Nobel prize winners Wole Soyinka of Nigeria and Naguib Mahfouz of Egypt, both attacked Khomeini, and both received death threats as a result, with Mahfouz later getting stabbed in the neck by a Muslim fundamentalist.[106][107]

Some Western politicians and writers did criticise Rushdie. Former United States president Jimmy Carter, while condemning the threats and fatwa against Rushdie, stated, "we have tended to promote him and his book with little acknowledgment that it is a direct insult to those millions of Moslems whose sacred beliefs have been violated and are suffering in restrained silence the added embarrassment of the Ayatollah's irresponsibility". He also held that Rushdie must have been aware of the response his book would evoke: "The author, a well-versed analyst of Moslem beliefs, must have anticipated a horrified reaction throughout the Islamic world".[108] He saw a need to be "sensitive to the concern and anger" of Muslims and thought severing diplomatic relations with Iran would be an "overreaction".[109]

Among authors, Roald Dahl was scathing and called Rushdie's book sensationalist and Rushdie "a dangerous opportunist".[110] John le Carré thought the death sentence to be outrageous, but he also criticised Rushdie's action: "I don't think it is given to any of us to be impertinent to great religions with impunity",[110] although he later expressed regret over his dispute with Rushdie.[111] Rushdie, however, was supported by major bodies in the literary world such as PEN and Association of American Publishers, and prominent figures such as Günter Grass, Martin Amis, Saul Bellow, Nadine Gordimer and Derek Walcott.[112] Another major supporter of Rushdie, Christopher Hitchens, said that the fatwa persuaded him that Islamic fundamentalism was an urgent menace, and later wrote God Is Not Great, a polemic against religion.[113] The affair however led to greater caution and some degree of self-censorship when dealing with Islamic issues in the literary and other creative arts.[107]

Western religious figures[edit]

Many religious figures in the United States and United Kingdom shared the aversion to blasphemy of pious Muslims (if not as intensely) and did not defend Rushdie like their secular compatriots. The Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie, demanded that the government expand the Blasphemy Act to cover other religions, including Islam.[114]

Michael Walzer wrote that the response revealed an evolution of the meaning of blasphemy; it moved away from a crime against God and toward something more temporal.

Today we are concerned for our pain and sometimes, for other people's. Blasphemy has become an offence against the faithful – in much the same way as pornography is an offence against the innocent and the virtuous. Given this meaning, blasphemy is an ecumenical crime and so it is not surprising ... that Christians and Jews should join Muslims in calling Salman Rushdie's [book] a blasphemous book.[115]

Some rabbis, such as Immanuel Jakobovits, chief rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth, opposed the book's publication.[116]