Sunday, December 30, 2018

UGANDA: Myers–Briggs tests for school and jobs



The Myers-Briggs test is used in Canada for school and jobs. It is some kind of psychology testing to determine who you are. Many companies use this test to verify if you can fit into their company culture. Tonight, both girls and I tried this thing. We found out that Natasha and I are introverts. But passive aggressive. Maybe we are not extroverts who yell out our opinions. But apparently, we get our way. It is rather silly to use psych tests for jobs. We can fake it. Never mind passive aggressive, below is the real thing. MLN === 
A chart with descriptions of each Myers–Briggs personality type and the four dichotomies central to the theory

The Myers–Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI) is an introspective self-reportquestionnaire with the purpose of indicating differing psychological preferences in how people perceive the world around them and make decisions.[1][2][3]

The MBTI was constructed by Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers.[4] It is based on the conceptual theory proposed by Carl Jung,[5] who had speculated that humans experience the world using four principal psychological functions – sensation, intuition, feeling, and thinking – and that one of these four functions is dominant for a person most of the time.[6]

The MBTI was constructed for normal populations and emphasizes the value of naturally occurring differences.[7] "The underlying assumption of the MBTI is that we all have specific preferences in the way we construe our experiences, and these preferences underlie our interests, needs, values, and motivation."[8]

Although popular in the business sector, the MBTI exhibits significant scientific (psychometric) deficiencies, notably including poor validity (i.e. not measuring what it purports to measure, not having predictive power or not having items that can be generalized), poor reliability (giving different results for the same person on different occasions), measuring categories that are not independent (some dichotomous traits have been noted to correlate with each other), and not being comprehensive (due to missing neuroticism).[9][10][11][12] The four scales used in the MBTI have some correlation with four of the Big Five personality traits, which are a more commonly accepted framework.[13]

HistoryEdit

Katharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myersextrapolated their MBTI theory from Carl Jung's writings in his book Psychological Types.

Katharine Cook Briggs began her research into personality in 1917. Upon meeting her future son-in-law, she observed marked differences between his personality and that of other family members. Briggs embarked on a project of reading biographies, and subsequently developed a typology wherein she proposed four temperaments: meditative (or thoughtful), spontaneous, executive, and social.[14][15]

After the English translation of Jung's book Psychological Types was published in 1923 (first published in German in 1921), she recognized that Jung's theory was similar to, but went far beyond, her own.[1]:22 Briggs's four types were later identified as corresponding to the IXXXs, EXXPs, EXTJs and EXFJs.[clarification needed][14][15] Her first publications were two articles describing Jung's theory, in the journal New Republic in 1926 ("Meet Yourself Using the Personality Paint Box") and 1928 ("Up From Barbarism"). After extensively studying the work of Jung, Briggs and her daughter extended their interest in human behavior into efforts to turn the theory of psychological types to practical use.[2][14]

Briggs's daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers, joined her mother's typological research and progressively took it over entirely. Myers graduated first in her class from Swarthmore College in 1919[1]:xx and wrote a mystery novel, Murder Yet to Come, using typological ideas in 1929, which won the National Detective Murder Mystery Contest that year. However, neither Myers nor Briggs was formally educated in the discipline of psychology, and both were self-taught in the field of psychometric testing.[1]:xiiiMyers therefore apprenticed herself to Edward N. Hay, who was then personnel manager for a large Philadelphia bank and went on to start one of the first successful personnel consulting firms in the United States. From Hay, Myers learned rudimentary test construction, scoring, validation, and statistical methods.[1]:xiii, xx

Briggs and Myers began creating the indicator during World War II[2] in the belief that a knowledge of personality preferences would help women entering the industrial workforce for the first time to identify the sort of war-time jobs that would be the "most comfortable and effective" for them.[1]:xiii The Briggs Myers Type Indicator Handbook was published in 1944. The indicator changed its name to "Myers–Briggs Type Indicator" in 1956.[16] Myers' work attracted the attention of Henry Chauncey, head of the Educational Testing Service. Under these auspices, the first MBTI Manual was published in 1962.

The MBTI received further support from Donald W. MacKinnon, head of the Institute of Personality and Social Research at the University of California, Berkeley; W. Harold Grant, a professor at Michigan State University and Auburn University; and Mary H. McCaulley of the University of Florida. The publication of the MBTI was transferred to Consulting Psychologists Press in 1975, and the Center for Applications of Psychological Type was founded as a research laboratory.[1]:xxi

After Myers' death in May 1980, Mary McCaulley updated the MBTI Manualand the second edition was published in 1985.[17] The third edition appeared in 1998.

Origins of the theoryEdit

Jung's theory of psychological types was not based on controlled scientific studies,[18] but instead on clinical observation, introspection, and anecdote—methods regarded as inconclusive in the modern field of scientific psychology.[18]

Jung's typology theories postulated a sequence of four cognitive functions (thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition), each having one of two polar orientations (extraversion or introversion), giving a total of eight dominant functions. The MBTI is based on these eight hypothetical functions, although with some differences in expression from Jung's model (see Differences from Jung below). While the Jungian model offers empirical evidence for the first three dichotomies, whether the Briggs had evidence for the J-P preference is unclear.[verification needed]

Differences from JungEditStructured vs. projective personality assessmentEdit

The MBTI takes what is called a "structured" approach to personality assessment. The responses to items are considered "closed" as they are interpreted according to the theory of the test constructers in scoring. This is contrary to the "projective" approach to personality assessment advocated by psychodynamic theorists such as Carl Jung. Indeed, Jung was a proponent of the "word association" test, one of the measures with a "projective" approach.

This approach uses "open-ended" responses that need to be interpreted in the context of the "whole" person, and not according to the preconceived theory and concept of the test constructers. It reveals how the unconscious dispositions, such as hidden emotions and internal conflicts, influence behaviour. Supporters of the "projective" approach to personality assessment are critical of the "structured" approach because defense mechanisms may distort responses to the closed items on structured tests and biases from the constructers may affect result interpretation.

Judging vs. perceptionEdit

The most notable addition of Myers and Briggs ideas to Jung's original thought is their concept that a given type's fourth letter (J or P) indicates a person's most preferred extraverted function, which is the dominant function for extraverted types and the auxiliary function for introverted types.[1]:21–22

Orientation of the tertiary functionEdit

Jung theorized that the dominant function acts alone in its preferred world: exterior for extraverts and interior for introverts. The remaining three functions, he suggested, operate together in the opposite orientation. Modern MBTI practitioners place doubt on this concept as being a category error with next to no empirical evidence backing it relative to other findings with correlation evidence, yet as a theory it still remains part of Myers & Briggs extrapolation of their original theory despite being discounted.[19]

The theory goes as such: if the dominant cognitive function is introverted the other functions are extraverted and vice versa. The MBTI Manual summarizes Jung's work of balance in psychological type as follows: "There are several references in Jung's writing to the three remaining functions having an opposite attitudinal character. For example, in writing about introverts with thinking dominant ... Jung commented that the counterbalancing functions have an extraverted character."[17] Using the INTP type as an example, the orientation would be as follows:

Dominant introverted thinkingAuxiliary extraverted intuitionTertiary introverted sensingInferior extraverted feeling

READ MORE:

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myers–Briggs_Type_Indicator

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