Tuesday, June 30, 2015



Luweero LC V chairman Abdul Nadduli and the Peasant African Promoters Association are under the spot for allegedly defrauding more than 100 youths seeking employment abroad.

 In 2013, Nadduli mobilized over 100 youths from Luweero district and recruited them under the Peasant African Promoters Association for job placement in Kuwait and Qatar.
Nadduli is the patron of the association, Yusuf Kikomeko chairperson, his son Umar Nadduli is the project manager, Musa Nadduli general secretary and Public Relation Jakana Nadduli.

 Masudi Ssentongo, the Wobulenzi Town Council Youth Publicity secretary says the LC V chair mobilised them through Mosques and Church functions to join the association with promises of getting them high paying casual jobs abroad.
He says on recruitment, each of the job seekers was asked to pay up to 2,500,000 Million Shillings to process their travel documents, certificate of good conduct from Interpol, medical fees, membership fees, insurance and transport for job interviews in Kampala.

Ssentongo says he sold his retail shop to raise the money in hope of getting a paying job in vain.  He says their efforts to pressurise Nadduli and other association officials to refund their money have yielded nothing.
Hanifah Zalwango, a resident of Kigulu LC 1 in Wobulenzi explains on learning of the opportunity to go abroad, her elder sister obtained several loans  to facilitate her travel. She regrets why they didn't invest the money into a local business.

Muhamadi Turyamwesimira, a resident of Muyenga LC 1 in Wobulenzi town suspects that Nadduli connived with his sons to form an association just to defraud them well knowing they didn't have capacity to take them abroad.
The affected youths led by Jamiru Lutankome and Nsobya Sunday are threatening to stage protests and drag Nadduli and all the association members to court for fraud.
They want the Nadduli and his team to refund the money they paid to the association and also compensate them for the lost time. Efforts by our reporter to speak to Yusuf Kikomeko, the chairperson of Peasant African Promoters' Association were unsuccessful.
However, Nadduli confirmed that he was aware of the grievances of the youths. He explains that they had partnered with ALSACO International (U) Limited to get jobs abroad but it was not trustworthy and it is responsible for the fraud.

Efforts to seek comment from ALSACO International (U) Limited were unsuccessful. In 2014, the Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development forced the agency to return all the girls they had taken to Kuwait to work as domestic servants following reports of harassment.
Managers of ALSACO International (U) Limited were also arrested for human trafficking.


DAY TWO IN FRANCE - THE GIRLS. Château de Versailles

I had promised to follow the girls' trip in France so that I could teach some things about France to Ugandans.
The girls' father comes from Normandy and I wrote about this previously (Liseux, Normandy).  Today they were in Paris (you have to fly into Paris by the way).  So they visted this great place and below is the wiki write up about it.  They are having a lot of fun I assure you. It is long but this place has a rich history.

The Palace of Versailles (English /vɛərˈs/ vair-sy or /vərˈs/ vər-syFrench: [vɛʁsɑj]), or simply Versailles, is a royal château inVersailles in the Île-de-France region of France. In French, it is known as the Château de Versailles.
When the château was built, Versailles was a country village; today, however, it is a wealthy suburb of Paris, some 20 kilometres southwest of the French capital. The court of Versailles was the centre of political power in France from 1682, when Louis XIV moved from Paris, until the royal family was forced to return to the capital in October 1789 after the beginning of the French Revolution. Versailles is therefore famous not only as a building, but as a symbol of the system of absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime.


The original hunting lodge in 1623
The earliest mention of the name of Versailles is in a document dated 1038, that is related to the village of Versailles. In 1575, the seigneury of Versailles was bought by Albert de Gondi, a naturalized Florentine, who invited Louis XIII on several hunting trips in the forests surrounding Versailles. Pleased with the location, Louis ordered the construction of a hunting lodge in 1624. Eight years later, Louis obtained the seigneury of Versailles from the Gondi family and began to make enlargements to the château. This structure would become the core of the new palace.[1] Louis XIII's successor, Louis XIV, had it expanded into one of the largest palaces in the world.[2] Following theTreaties of Nijmegen in 1678, he began to gradually move the court to Versailles. The court was officially established there on 6 May 1682.[3]
After the disgrace of Nicolas Fouquet in 1661, Louis confiscated Fouquet's estate and employed the talents of Le VauLe Nôtre, and Le Brun, who all had worked on Fouquet's grand château Vaux-le-Vicomte, for his building campaigns at Versailles and elsewhere. For Versailles, there were four distinct building campaigns.[4]

The Four Building Campaigns (1664–1710)[edit]

View of the Palace from the garden
The first building campaign (1664–1668) commenced with the Plaisirs de l'Île enchantée (Pleasures of the Enchanted Island) of 1664, a fête that was held between 7 and 13 May 1664. The campaign involved alterations in the château and gardens to accommodate the 600 guests invited to the party.[5]
The second building campaign (1669–1672) was inaugurated with the signing of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which ended the War of Devolution. During this campaign, the château began to assume some of the appearance that it has today. The most important modification of the château was Le Vau's envelope of Louis XIII's hunting lodge.[6] Significant to the design and construction of the grands appartements is that the rooms of both apartments are of the same configuration and dimensions—a hitherto unprecedented feature in French palace design. Both the grand appartement du roi and the grand appartement de la reine formed a suite of seven enfilade rooms. The decoration of the rooms, which was conducted under Le Brun's direction, depicted the "heroic actions of the king" and were represented in allegorical form by the actions of historical figures from the antique past (Alexander the GreatAugustusCyrus, etc.).[7]
With the signing of the Treaty of Nijmegen in 1678, which ended the Dutch War, the third building campaign at Versailles began (1678–1684). Under the direction of the architect,Jules Hardouin-Mansart, the Palace of Versailles acquired much of the look that it has today. In addition to the Hall of Mirrors, Hardouin-Mansart designed the north and southwings and the Orangerie. Le Brun was occupied not only with the interior decoration of the new additions of the palace, but also collaborated with Le Nôtre's in landscaping the palace gardens.[8]
Soon after the defeat of the War of the League of Augsburg (1688–1697), Louis XIV undertook his last building campaign at Versailles. The fourth building campaign (1699–1710) concentrated almost exclusively on construction of the royal chapel designed by Hardouin-Mansart and finished by Robert de Cotte. There were also some modifications in theappartement du roi, namely the construction of the Salon de l'Œil de Bœuf and the King's Bedchamber. With the completion of the chapel in 1710, virtually all construction at Versailles ceased; building would not be resumed at Versailles until some twenty one years later during the reign of Louis XV.[9]
Plans of the evolution of Versailles
3 Versailles III als in 1668.jpg4 Versailles IV de envelope van 1674 met de vogelkooien.jpg7 Versailles nog zonder spiegelzaal.jpg
The palace in 1668The palace in 1674The palace in 1680

Louis XV–Louis XVI (1722–1789)[edit]

During the reign of Louis XV, Versailles underwent transformation, but not on the scale that had been seen during the reign of Louis XIV. The first project in 1722 was the completion of the Salon d'Hercule. Significant among Louis XV's contributions to Versailles were the petit appartement du roi; the appartements de Mesdames, the appartement du Dauphin, and the appartement de la Dauphine on the ground floor; and the two private apartments of Louis XV—petit appartement du roi au deuxième étage (later transformed into the appartement de Madame du Barry) and the petit appartement du roi au troisième étage—on the second and third floors of the palace. The crowning achievements of Louis XV's reign were the construction of the Opéra and the Petit Trianon.[10] Equally significant was the destruction of the Escalier des Ambassadeurs (Ambassadors' Stair), the only fitting approach to the State Apartments, which Louis XV undertook to make way for apartments for his daughters.
The gardens remained largely unchanged from the time of Louis XIV; the completion of the Bassin de Neptune between 1738 and 1741 was the only important legacy Louis XV made to the gardens.[11] Towards the end of his reign, Louis XV, under the advice of Ange-Jacques Gabriel, began to remodel the courtyard facades of the palace. With the objective revetting the entrance of the palace with classical facades, Louis XV began a project that was continued during the reign of Louis XVI, but which did not see completion until the 20th century.[10]
Much of Louis XVI's contributions to Versailles were largely dictated by the unfinished projects left to him by his grandfather. Shortly after his ascension, Louis XVI ordered a complete replanting of the gardens with the intention of transforming the jardins français to an English-style garden, which had become popular during the late 18th century.[10] In the palace, the library and the salon des jeux in the petit appartement du roi and the decoration of the petit appartement de la reine for Marie-Antoinette are among the finest examples of the style Louis XVI.[12]

French Revolution (1789–1799)[edit]

On 6 October 1789, the royal family had to leave Versailles and move to the Tuileries Palace in Paris, as a result of the Women's March on Versailles.[13] During the early years of the French Revolution, preservation of the palace was largely in the hands of the citizens of Versailles. In October 1790, Louis XVI ordered the palace to be emptied of its furniture, requesting that most be sent to the Tuileries Palace. In response to the order, the mayor of Versailles and the municipal council met to draft a letter to Louis XVI in which they stated that if the furniture was removed, it would certainly precipitate economic ruin on the city.[14][a] A deputation from Versailles met with the king on 12 October after which Louis XVI, touched by the sentiments of the residents of Versailles, rescinded the order. However, eight months later, the fate of Versailles was sealed.
On 21 June 1791, Louis XVI was arrested at Varennes after which the Assemblée nationale constituante accordingly declared that all possessions of the royal family had been abandoned. To safeguard the palace, the Assemblée nationale constituante ordered the palace of Versailles to be sealed. On 20 October 1792 a letter was read before theNational Convention in which Jean-Marie Roland de la Platière, interior minister, proposed that the furnishings of the palace and those of the residences in Versailles that had been abandoned be sold and that the palace be either sold or rented. The sale of furniture transpired at auctions held between 23 August 1793 and 30 nivôse an III (19 January 1795). Only items of particular artistic or intellectual merit were exempt from the sale. These items were consigned to be part of the collection of a museum, which had been planned at the time of the sale of the palace furnishings.
In 1793, Charles-François Delacroix deputy to the Convention and father of the painter Eugène Delacroix proposed that the metal statuary in the gardens of Versailles be confiscated and sent to the foundry to be made into cannon.[14] The proposal was debated but eventually it was tabled. On 28 floréal an II (5 May 1794) the Convention decreed that the château and gardens of Versailles, as well as other former royal residences in the environs, would not be sold but placed under the care of the Republic for the public good.[16] Following this decree, the château became a repository for art work confiscated from churches and princely homes. As a result collections were amassed at Versailles that eventually became part of the proposed museum.[16]
Among the items found at Versailles at this time were a collection of natural curiosities that has been assembled by the sieur Fayolle during his voyages in America. The collection was sold to the comte d'Artois and was later confiscated by the state. Fayolle, who had been nominated to the Commission des arts, became guardian of the collection and was later, in June 1794, nominated by the Convention to be the first directeur du Conservatoire du Muséum national de Versailles[17] The next year, André Dumont the people's representative, became administrator for the department of the Seine-et-Oise. Upon assuming his administrative duties, Dumont was struck with the deplorable state into which the palace and gardens had sunk. He quickly assumed administrative responsibilities for the château and assembled a team of conservators to oversee the various collections of the museum.[17]
One of Dumont's first appointments was that of Huges Lagarde as bibliographer of the museum, on 10 messier an III (28 June 1795). Lagarde was a wealthy soap merchant fromMarseille with strong political connections, With the abandonment of the palace, there remained no less than 104 libraries which contained in excess of 200,000 printed volumes and manuscripts. Lagarde, with his influential contacts and his association with Dumont, became the driving force behind Versailles as a museum at this time. Lagarde was able to assemble a team of curators including sieur Fayolle for natural history and, Louis Jean-Jacques Durameau, the painter responsible for the ceiling painting in the Opéra, was appointed as curator for painting.[17]
Owing largely to the political vicissitudes that occurred in France during the 1790s, Versailles succumbed to further degradations. Mirrors were assigned by the finance ministry for the payment of debts incurred by the Republic; and draperies, upholstery, and fringes were confiscated and sent to the mint to recover the gold and silver used in their manufacture. Despite its designation as a museum, Versailles served as an annex to the Hôtel des Invalides pursuant to the decree of 7 frimaire an VIII (28 November 1799), which commandeered part of the palace for use as a military hospital. Wounded soldiers were housed in the petit apartment du roi.[14]
In 1797, the Muséum national was reorganised and renamed Musée spécial de l'École française.[18] The grands appartements were used as galleries in which the morceaux de réception submitted by artists seeking admission to the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture during the 17th and 18th centuries, the series The Life of Saint Bruno byEustache Le Sueur and the Life of Marie de Médicis by Peter Paul Rubens were placed on display. The museum, which included the sculptures in the garden, became the finest museum of classic French art in existence.[10]

First Empire to July Monarchy (1800–1850)[edit]

With the advent of Napoléon and the First Empire, the status of Versailles changed again. Paintings and other art work that had previously been assigned to the Muséum nationaland the Musée spécial de l'École française were systematically dispersed to other locations and eventually the museum was closed. In accordance with the provisions of the 1804 Constitution, Versailles was designated as the Imperial palace located in the Department of the Seine-et-Oise.[b]

Grand Trianon loggia
While Napoléon did not reside in the château, apartments were, however, arranged and decorated for the use of the empress Marie-Louise. The emperor chose to reside at the Grand Trianon.

Grand Trianon interior
The château continued to serve, however, as an annex of the Hôtel des Invalides.[20] Nevertheless, on 3 January 1805, Pope Pius VII, who came to France to officiate at Napoléon's coronation, visited the palace and blessed the throng of people gathered on the parterre d'eaufrom the balcony of the Hall of Mirrors.[21]
The Bourbon Restoration saw little activity at Versailles. Areas of the gardens were replanted but no significant restoration or modifications of the interiors were undertaken, despite the fact that Louis XVIII would often visit the palace and walk through the vacant rooms.[22]Charles X chose the Tuileries Palace over Versailles and rarely visited his former home.[23]

Louis-Philippe opening the Galerie des Batailles, 10 June 1837 (painted byFrançois-Joseph Heim)
With the Revolution of 1830 and the establishment of the July Monarchy, the status of Versailles changed. In March 1832, the Loi de la Liste civile was promulgated, which designated Versailles as a crown dependency. Like Napoléon before him, Louis-Philippe chose to live at the Grand Trianon; however, unlike Napoléon, Louis-Philippe did have a grand design for Versailles.
In 1833, Louis-Philippe proposed the establishment of a museum dedicated to “all the glories of France,” which included the Orléans dynasty and the Revolution of 1830 that had put him on the throne of France. For the next decade, under the direction of Eugène-Charles-Frédéric Nepveu and Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine, the château underwent major alterations.[24] The museum was officially inaugurated on 10 June 1837 as part of the festivities that surrounded the marriage of the Prince royal, Ferdinand-Philippe d'Orléans with princess Hélène of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and represented one of the most ambitious and costly undertakings of Louis-Philippe's reign. Over, the emperor at the king's home—Napoléon at Louis XIV's; in a word, it is having given to this magnificent book that is called French history this magnificent binding that is called Versailles (Victor Hugo).[c]
The aile du Midi, was given over to the galerie des Balles, which necessitated the demolition of most of the apartments of the Princes of the Blood who lived in this part of the palace during the Ancien Régime. The galerie des Batailles was an epigone of the Grande galerie of theLouvre Palace and was intended to glorify French military history from the Battle of Tolbiac (traditionally dated 495) to the Battle of Wagram ( 5–6 July 1809). While a number of the paintings displayed in the galerie des Batailles were of questionable quality, a few masterpieces, such as the Battle of Taillebourg by Eugène Delacroix, were displayed here. Part of the aile du Nord was converted for theSalle des Croisades, a room dedicated to famous knights of the Crusades and decorated with their names and coats of arms. The apartments of the dauphin and the dauphine as well as those of Louis XV's daughters on the ground floor of the corps de logis were transformed into portrait galleries. To accommodate the displays, some of the boiseries were removed and either put into storage or sold. During the Prussian occupation of the palace in 1871, the boiseries in storage were burned as firewood.[24]

From the Second Empire (1850–present)[edit]

Gardens and palace of Versailles in the 1920s.
Pierre de Nolhac arrived at the Palace of Versailles in 1887 and was appointed curator of the museum in 1892.[25] Nolhac began to restore the palace to its appearance before the Revolution.[26] Nolhac also organized events aimed at raising the awareness of potential donors to the Palace. The development of private donations led to the creation of the Friends of Versailles in June 1907.
Under the aegis of Gérald van der Kemp, of the museum from 1952 to 1980, the palace witnessed some of its most ambitious conservation and restoration projects: new roofing for the galerie des glaces; restoration of the chambre de la reine; restoration of the chambre de Louis XIV; restoration of the Opéra.[27] At this time, the ground floor of the aile du Nord was converted into a gallery of French history from the 17th century to the 19th century.[28]

Current use[edit]

The Fifth Republic has enthusiastically promoted the museum as one of France's foremost tourist attractions.[29] The palace, however, still serves political functions. Heads of state are regaled in the Hall of Mirrors; the Sénat and the Assemblée nationale meet in congress in Versailles to revise or otherwise amend the French Constitution, a tradition that came into effect with the promulgation of the 1875 Constitution.[d] Public establishment of the museum and Château de Versailles Spectacles recently organized the Jeff Koons Versailles exhibition.[31]

Images of Versailles[edit]

Views of the Palace of Versailles
Panoramic view from the park
Peter Stehlik 2013.04.22 Panorama 1A.jpg
Panoramic view from the city
Palace of Versailles.gifZuidgevel Corps de logis rond 1675 Anonieme schilder.jpgVersailles-Chateau-VueJardins1.jpgSchloss-Versailles.jpg
View of Versailles from the Avenue de Paris, ca. 1662 by Pierre Patel. This was how Versailles looked before Louis XIV began enlarging the château.Garden façade of the Palace of Versailles, ca. 1675. Shown is the terrace that was later to become part of the Hall of Mirrors.Louis XIV's third building campaign resulted in the construction of the Hall of Mirrors.View of the Château de Versailles as seen from the Place d'Armes, 1722, ca. 1722, by Pierre-Denis Martin. This was how Versailles looked at the end of Louis XIV's fourth building campaign.
Wernerprokla.jpgOrpen, William (Sir) (RA) - The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles, 28th June 1919 - Google Art Project.jpgGrandAppartReine-Versailles.jpgVERSAILLES DETAIL.JPG
Proclamation of the German Empire, 18 January 1871, 1877 by Anton von Werner.The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles, 28 June 1919 by Sir William Orpen, KBE.Salle du Sacre with a view toward Salle des Gardes de la Reine in the Grand Appartementof the queen.Parterre du Midi with a view toward detail on the facade of the palace.

Features of the Palace of Versailles[edit]

Grands appartements[edit]

Plan of the main floor (c. 1676), showing Le Vau's enveloppe with thegrand appartement du roi in blue and the grand appartement de la reine in yellow. The old château is shown in gray. The terrace overlooked the centralparterre of the gardens of Versailles.[32]

Plan of the main floor in the central part of the palace (c. 1742),[33] showing the grand appartement du roi in dark blue, the appartement du roi in medium blue, the petit appartement du roi in light blue, the grand appartement de la reine in yellow, and the petit appartement de la reine in red
As a result of Le Vau's enveloppe of Louis XIII's château, the king and the queen had new apartments in the new addition, known at the time as the château neuf. The grands appartements, which are known respectively as the grand appartement du roi and the grand appartement de la reine, occupied the main or principal floor of the château neuf. Le Vau's design for the state apartments closely followed Italian models of the day, as evidenced by the placement of the apartments on the next floor up from the ground level—the piano nobile—a convention the architect borrowed from 16th and 17th century Italian palace design.[34]
The king's apartment consisted of an enfilade of seven rooms, each dedicated to one of the then known planets and their associated titular Roman deity. The queen's apartment formed a parallel enfilade with that of the grand appartement du roi. It served as the residence of three queens of France—Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche, wife of Louis XIV, Marie Leczinska, wife of Louis XV, and Marie-Antoinette, wife of Louis XVI. Additionally, Louis XIV's granddaughter-in-law, Princess Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy, as duchesse de Bourgogne, occupied these rooms from 1697 (the year of her marriage) to her death in 1712.[e] After the addition of the Hall of Mirrors (1678–1684) the king's appartement was reduced to five rooms (until the reign of Louis XV, when two more rooms were added) and the queen's to four.

Appartement du roi (King's Private Apartments)[edit]

Main article: Appartement du roi
The appartement du roi is a suite of rooms set aside for the private use of the king. Originally arranged and used by Louis XIV in 1683, these rooms were used by his successors, Louis XV and Louis XVI for such ceremonies as the lever and the coucher.

Le petit appartement du roi[edit]

Main article: Petit appartement du roi
The petit appartement du roi is a suite of rooms that were reserved for the private use of the king. Occupying the site on which rooms were originally arranged for Louis XIII on the first floor of the château, the space was radically modified by Louis XIV. His successors, Louis XVand Louis XVI drastically modified and remodeled these rooms for their personal use.

Le petit appartement de la reine[edit]

The petit appartement de la reine is a suite of rooms that were reserved for the personal use of the queen. Originally arranged for the use of the Marie-Thérèse, consort of Louis XIV, the rooms were later modified for use by Marie Leszczyńska and finally for Marie-Antoinette.

Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors)[edit]

Main article: Hall of Mirrors
The galerie des glaces (Hall of Mirrors in English), is perhaps the most celebrated room in the château of Versailles. Setting for many of the ceremonies of the French Court during the Ancien Régime, the galerie des glaces has also inspired numerous copies and renditions throughout the world.
The room begun construction in 1678.

Chapels of Versailles[edit]

Main article: Chapels of Versailles
In the evolution of the château of Versailles, there have been five chapels. The current chapel, which was the last major building project ofLouis XIV, represents one of the finest examples of French Baroque architecture and ecclesiastical decoration.


L'Opéra was perhaps the most ambitious building project of Louis XV for the château of Versailles. Completed in 1770, the Opéra was inaugurated as part of the wedding festivities of Louis XV's grandson, later Louis XVI, and Marie-Antoinette.

Museum of the History of France[edit]

Main article: Galerie des Batailles
In the 19th century the "Museum of the History of France" was founded in Versailles, at the behest of Louis-Philippe I, who ascended to the throne in 1830. Many of the palace's rooms were taken over to house the new collections and the large Galerie des Batailles (Hall of the Battles) was created to display paintings and sculptures depicting milestones battles of French history. The collections display painted, sculpted, drawn and engraved images illustrating events or personalities of the history of France since its inception. The museum occupies the lateral wings of the Palace. Most of the paintings date back to the 19th century and have been created specially for the museum by major painters of the time such as DelacroixHorace Vernet or François Gérard but there are also much older artworks which retrace French History. Notably the museum displays works by Philippe de ChampaignePierre MignardLaurent de La HyreCharles Le BrunAdam Frans van der MeulenNicolas de LargillièreHyacinthe RigaudJean Antoine HoudonJean Marc NattierElisabeth Vigée Le BrunHubert RobertThomas LawrenceJacques-Louis DavidAntoine Jean Gros and also Pierre-Auguste Renoir.

Gardens of Versailles[edit]

The Orangerie of Versailles
Main article: Gardens of Versailles
Evolving with the château, the gardens of Versailles represent one of the finest extant examples of Garden à la française in French gardendesign.

Subsidiary structures[edit]

Located in close proximity to the château, these smaller structures served the needs of members of the royal family and court officials during the Ancien Régime. They include the Ménagerie (1664, demolished), the Trianon de Porcelaine (1670, demolished), the Grand Trianon or Marble Trianon (1689), the Petit Trianon (1768), and the Pavillon de la Lanterne (1787).


One of the most baffling aspects to the study of Versailles is the cost – how much Louis XIV and his successors spent on Versailles. Owing to the nature of the construction of Versailles and the evolution of the role of the palace, construction costs were essentially a private matter. Initially, Versailles was planned to be an occasional residence for Louis XIV and was referred to as the "king's house".[35] Accordingly, much of the early funding for construction came from the king's own purse, funded by revenues received from hisappanage as well as revenues from the province of New France (Canada), which, while part of France, was a private possession of the king and therefore exempt from the control of the Parliaments.[36]

The construction of the Palace of Versailles.
Once Louis XIV embarked on his building campaigns, expenses for Versailles became more of a matter for public record, especially afterJean-Baptiste Colbert assumed the post of finance minister. Expenditures on Versailles have been recorded in the compendium known as the Comptes des bâtiments du roi sous le règne de Louis XIV and which was edited and published in five volumes by Jules Guiffrey in the 19th century. These volumes provide valuable archival material pursuant to the financial expenditures of all aspects of Versailles from the payments disbursed to artists to mole catchers.[37]
To counter the costs of Versailles during the early years of Louis XIV's personal reign, Colbert decided that Versailles should be the "showcase" of France.[38] Accordingly, all materials that went into the construction and decoration of Versailles were manufactured in France. Even the mirrors used in the decoration of the Hall of Mirrors were made in France. While Venice in the 17th century had the monopoly on the manufacture of mirrors, Colbert succeeded in enticing a number of artisans from Venice to make the mirrors for Versailles. However, owing to Venetian proprietary claims on the technology of mirror manufacture, the Venetian government ordered the assassination of the artisans to keep the secrets proprietary to the Venetian Republic.[38] To meet the demands for decorating and furnishing Versailles, Colbert nationalised the tapestry factory owned by the Gobelin family, to become the Manufacture royale des Gobelins.[38]

Louis XIV visits theGobelins with Colbert, 15 October 1667. Tapestry from the series, "Histoire du roi" designed by Charles Le Brunand woven between 1667 and 1672. Articles of Louis XIV's silver furniture are seen in this tapestry.
In 1667, the name of the enterprise was changed to the Manufacture royale des Meubles de la Couronne. The Gobelins were charged with all decoration needs of the palace, which was under the direction of Charles Le Brun/[38]
One of the most costly elements in the furnishing of the Grands appartements during the early years of the personal reign of Louis XIV was the silver furniture, which can be taken as a standard – with other criteria – for determining a plausible cost for Versailles. The Comptes meticulously list the expenditures on the silver furniture – disbursements to artists, final payments, delivery – as well as descriptions and weight of items purchased. Entries for 1681 and 1682 concerning the silver balustrade used in the salon de Mercure serve as an example:
  • Year 1681
II. 5 In anticipation: For the silver balustrade for the king's bedroom: 90,000 livres
II. 7 18 November to Sieur du Metz, 43,475 livres 5 sols for delivery to Sr. Lois and to Sr. de Villers for payment of 142,196 livres for the silver balustrade that they are making for the king's bedroom and 404 livres for tax: 48,861 livres 5 sol.
II. 15 16 June 1681 – 23 January 1682 to Sr. Lois and Sr. de Villers silversmiths on account for the silver balustrade that they are making for the king's use (four payments): 88,457 livres 5 sols.
II. 111 25 March – 18 April to Sr. Lois and Sr. de Villers silversmiths who are working on a silver balustrade for the king, for continued work (two payments): 40,000 livres
  • Year 1682
II. 129 21 March to Sr. Jehannot de Bartillay 4,970 livres 12 sols for the delivery to Sr. Lois and de Villers silversmiths for, with 136,457 livres 5 sol to one and 25,739 livres 10 sols to another, making the 38 balusters, 17 pilasters, the base and the cornice for the balustrade for the château of Versailles weighing 4,076 marc at the rate of 41 livres the marc[f] including 41 livres 2 sols for tax: 4,970 livres 12 sols.[37]
Accordingly, the silver balustrade, which contained in excess of one ton of silver, cost in excess of 560,000 livres. It is difficult – if not impossible – to give an accurate rate of exchange between 1682 and today.[g] However, Frances Buckland provides valuable information that provides an idea of the true cost of the expenditures at Versailles during the time of Louis XIV. In 1679, Mme de Maintenon stated that the cost of providing light and food for twelve people for one day amounted to slightly more than 14 livres.[39] In December 1689, to defray the cost of the War of the League of Augsburg, Louis XIV ordered all the silver furniture and articles of silver at Versailles—including chamber pots—sent to the mint to be melted.[40]
Clearly, the silver furniture alone represented a significant outlay in the finances of Versailles. While the decoration of the palace was costly, certain other costs were minimised. For example, labour for construction was often low, due largely to the fact that the army during times of peace and during the winter, when wars were not waged, was pressed into action at Versailles. Additionally, given the quality and uniqueness of the items produced at the Gobelins for use and display at Versailles, the palace served as a venue to showcase not only the success of Colbert's mercantilism, but also to display the finest that France could produce.[41]

Costs of restoration programmes[edit]

The restoration initiatives launched by the Fifth Republic have proven to be perhaps more costly than the expenditures of the palace in the Ancien Régime. Starting in the 1950s, when the museum of Versailles was under the directorship of Gérald van der Kemp, the objective was to restore the palace to its state – or as close to it as possible – in 1789 when the royal family left the palace. Among the early projects was the repair of the roof over the Hall of Mirrors; the publicity campaign brought international attention to the plight of post-war Versailles and garnered much foreign money including a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. Concurrently, in Russia, the restoration of the Pavlovsk Palacelocated outside of Leningrad – today's Saint Petersburg – brought the attention of French museum authorities, including the curators of Versailles.[42]
Pavlovsk Palace was built by Catherine the Great's son Paul. The czarevitch and his wife, Marie Feodorovna, were avid francophiles, who, on a visit to France and Versailles in the 1780s, purchased great quantities of silk, which they later used to upholster furniture in Pavlosk. The palace survived the Russian Revolution intact – descendants of Paul I were living in the palace at the time the communists evicted them – however, during the Second World War, the furniture and artifacts housed in the palace, which had been transformed into a museum, were removed. In the process of evacuation the museum collections, remnants of the silks purchased by Paul I of Russia and Marie Feodorovna were found and conserved. After the war when Soviet authorities were restoring the palace, which had been gutted by the retreating Nazi forces, they recreated the silk fabrics by using the conserved 18th century remnants.[42]

The "Royal Fence" restored in 2009.
When the French authorities saw the results of Russian efforts and the high quality they were able to achieve, the French revived 18th-century weaving techniques so as to reproduce the silks used in the decoration of Versailles.[42] The two greatest achievements of this initiative are seen today in wall hangings used in the restoration of the chambre de la reine in the grand appartement de reine and thechambre du roi in the appartement du roi. While the design used for the chambre du roi was, in fact, from a design that had been used during the Ancien Régime to decorate the chambre de la reine, it nevertheless represents a great achievement in the ongoing restoration at Versailles. Additionally, this project, which took over seven years to achieve, required several hundred kilograms of silver and gold to complete.[43] One of the more costly endeavors for the museum and the government of France's Fifth Republic has been to repurchase as much of the original furnishings as possible. However, because furniture with a royal provenance – and especially furniture that was made for Versailles – is a highly sought after commodity on the international market, the museum has spent considerable funds on retrieving much of the palace's original furnishings/[44]
In 2003, a new restoration initiative – the "Grand Versailles" project – was started, which necessitated unexpected repair and replantation of the gardens. The project will be on-going for the next seventeen years, funded with a state endowment of €135 million allocated for the first seven years. The project will address such concerns as security for the palace, and continued restoration of the bosquet des trois fontainesVINCI underwrote the €12 million restoration project for the Hall of Mirrors, which was completed in 2006/[45]
We may never know the true amount spent on the creation of Versailles, and most current estimates are speculative. A recent estimate has placed the amount spent on Versailles during the Ancien Régime as US$2 billion.[46] This figure in all probability is an under-evaluation of the money spent on Versailles. France's Fifth Republic expenditures alone that have been directed to restoration and maintenance at Versailles undoubtedly surpass those of the Sun King.

War uses[edit]

After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, with the Siege of Paris dragging on, the palace was the main headquarters of the Prussian army from 5 October 1870 until 13 March 1871. On 18 January 1871, Prussian King Wilhelm I was proclaimed German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors, and the German Empire was founded.[47]
After the First World War, it was the site of the opening of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, also on 18 January. Germany was blamed for causing the First World War in theTreaty of Versailles, which was signed in the same room on 28 June 1919.
The ravages of war and neglect over the centuries have left their mark on the palace and its park. Modern French governments of the post-World War II era have sought to repair these damages. They have on the whole been successful, but some of the more costly items, such as the vast array of fountains, have yet to be put back completely in service. As spectacular as they might seem now, they were even more extensive in the 18th century. The 18th-century waterworks at Marly— the Machine de Marly that fed the fountains— was possibly the biggest mechanical system of its time. The water came in from afar on monumental stone aqueduct which have long ago fallen in disrepair or been torn down. Some aqueducts were never completed for want of resources or due to the exigencies of war. The search for sufficient supplies of water was never fully realised even during the apogee of Versailles' glory as the seat of government, as the fountains could not be operated together satisfactorily for any significant periods of time.[48]

Social history[edit]

The politics of display[edit]

Reception of the Grand Condé at Versailles following his victory at Seneffe. Condé advances towards Louis XIV in a respectful manner with laurel wreaths on his path, while captured enemy flags are displayed on both sides of the stairs. It marked the end of Condé's exile, following his participation to theFronde.
Versailles became the home of the French nobility and the location of the royal court—thus becoming the centre of French government. Louis XIV himself lived there, and symbolically the central room of the long extensive symmetrical range of buildings was the King's Bedchamber (La Chambre du Roi), which itself was centred on the lavish and symbolic state bed, set behind a rich railing not unlike a communion rail.[citation needed] Indeed, even the principal axis of the gardens themselves was conceived to radiate from this fulcrum. All the power of France emanated from this centre: there were government offices here; as well as the homes of thousands of courtiers, their retinues and all the attendant functionaries of court.[citation needed]By requiring that nobles of a certain rank and position spend time each year at Versailles, Louis prevented them from developing their own regional power at the expense of his own, and kept them from countering his efforts to centralize the French government in an absolute monarchy.[citation needed]
At various periods before Louis XIV established absolute rule, France, like the Holy Roman Empire lacked central authority and was not the unified state it was to become during subsequent centuries.[citation needed] During the Middle Ages some local nobles were often more powerful than the French King and, although technically loyal to the King, they possessed their own provincial seats of power and government, culturally influential courts and armies loyal to them and not the King, and the right to levy their own taxes on their subjects.[citation needed] Some families were so powerful, they achieved international prominence and contracted marriage alliances with foreign royal houses to further their own political ambitions.[citation needed] Although nominally Kings of France, de facto royal power had at times been limited purely to the region around Paris.[citation needed]

Life at Court[edit]

Life at Versailles was intrinsically determined by position, favour and above all one's birth. The Chateau was a sprawling cluster of lodgings for which courtiers vied and manipulated. Today, many people see Versailles as unparalleled in its magnificence and splendour; yet few know of the actual living conditions many of Versailles august residents had to endure. Modern historians have, on more than one occasion, compared the palace to a vast apartment block. Apart from the royal family, the majority of the residents were senior members of the household.
On each floor, living units of varying size, some 350 in all, were arranged along tiled corridors and given a number. Each door had a key, which was to be handed in when the lodging was vacated. Many courtiers would trade lodgings and group together with their allies, families or friends. The Noailles family took over so much of the Southern Wing's attic that the corridor leading to all the lodgings on that floor was nicknamed "Noailles Road" by courtiers of the time.
Rank and status dictated everything in Versailles; not least among that list was one's lodgings. Louis XIV envisaged Versailles as a seat for all the Bourbons, as well as his troublesome nobles. These nobles were, so to say, placed within a "gilded cage".[49] Luxury and opulence was not always in the description given to their residences. Many nobles had to make do with one or two room apartments, forcing many nobles to buy town-houses in Versailles proper and keeping their palace rooms for changes of clothes or entertaining guests, rarely sleeping there. Rooms at Versailles were immensely useful for an ambitious courtier as they allowed palace residents easy and constant access to the monarch, essential to their ambitions, and gave them constant access to the latest gossip and news.

In popular culture[edit]

Carnival versions of Louis XIV and Marie-Antoinette in front of Versailles Palace
Singer-songwriter Al Stewart released a song entitled "The Palace of Versailles", detailing the French RevolutionThe Terror, and the military coupof Napoléon Bonaparte, from the perspective of "the lonely Palace of Versailles".
On 2 July 2005, the French Live 8 was held in the courtyard of Versailles.
In 2012 animated film Madagascar 3, sophisticated chimpanzees Mason and Phil dress up as "King of Versailles" in reference to the Palace of Versailles.
The Konami video game Castlevania: Bloodlines has Versailles as the fifth stage.
In 2014 Kim Kardashian and Kanye West stayed in Versailles, along with friends and family the day before they were to be married.
The video games Assassin's Creed Unity and Assassin's Creed Rogue are set in Versailles at the beginning of Unity and the end of Rogue.
In the 2013 release, Pokémon X & Y, The Palace of Versailles is depicted as Parfum Palace.