Thursday, May 28, 2020




Trump signs executive order to punish Twitter and Facebook

Twitter, Facebook
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Trump move could scrap or weaken law that protects social media companies

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - President Donald Trump said he will introduce legislation that may scrap or weaken a law that has protected internet companies, including Twitter and Facebook, in an extraordinary attempt to regulate social media platforms where he has been criticized.

The proposed legislation is part of an executive order Trump signed on Thursday afternoon. Trump had attacked Twitter for tagging his tweets about unsubstantiated claims of fraud about mail-in voting with a warning prompting readers to fact-check the posts.

Trump wants to “remove or change” a provision of a law known as section 230 that shields social media companies from liability for content posted by their users.

Trump directs AG to boost enforcement of state laws on social media companies
If Trump kicks out Twitter, there's always Germany
Trump said U.S. Attorney General William Barr will begin drafting legislation “immediately” to regulate social media companies.

On Wednesday, Reuters reported the White House’s plan to modify Section 230 based on a copy of a draft executive order that experts said was unlikely to survive legal scrutiny. The final version of the order released on Thursday had no major changes except the proposal for a federal legislation.

“What I think we can say is we’re going to regulate it,” Trump said before the signing of the order.

“I’ve been called by Democrats that want to do this, so I think you could possibly have a bipartisan situation,” said Republican Trump, who is running for re-election in November.

Twitter did not comment on the executive order. A Google spokeswoman said “undermining Section 230 in this way would hurt America’s economy and its global leadership on internet freedom.”

A Facebook spokesman said repealing or limiting the provision will restrict more speech online and encourage platforms to censor anything that might offend anyone.

Trump’s remarks and the order, as written, attempts to circumvent Congress and the courts in directing changes to long-established interpretations of Section 230. It represents his latest attempt to use the tools of the presidency to force private companies to change policies that he believes are not favorable to him.

U.S. President Donald Trump holds up a front page of the New York Post as he speaks to reporters while he signing an executive order on social media companies in the Oval Office of the White House in Washington, U.S., May 28, 2020. REUTERS/Jonathan Ernst
“In terms of presidential efforts to limit critical commentary about themselves, I think one would have to go back to the Sedition Act of 1798 - which made it illegal to say false things about the president and certain other public officials - to find an attack supposedly rooted in law by a president on any entity which comments or prints comments about public issues and public people,” said First Amendment lawyer Floyd Abrams.

Others like Jack Balkin, a Yale University constitutional law professor said “The president is trying to frighten, coerce, scare, cajole social media companies to leave him alone and not do what Twitter has just done to him.”

Twitter’s shares ended over 4 percent down on Thursday. Facebook ended down 1.6 percent and Google parent Alphabet Inc finished slightly up.

Trump, who uses Twitter virtually every day to promote his policies and insult his opponents, has long claimed without evidence that the site is biased in favor of Democrats. He and his supporters have leveled the same unsubstantiated charges against Facebook, which Trump’s presidential campaign uses heavily as an advertising vehicle.

On Thursday, Trump said there is nothing he would rather do than get rid of his Twitter account but he had to keep it in order to circumvent the press and get his version of events to millions of followers.

The protections of Section 230 have often been under fire for different reasons from lawmakers including Big Tech critic Senator Josh Hawley. Critics argue that they give internet companies a free pass on things like hate speech and content that supports terror organizations.

Social media companies have been under pressure from many quarters, both in the United States and other countries, to better control misinformation and harmful content on their services.

Twitter Chief Executive Jack Dorsey said on the company’s website late Wednesday that the president’s tweets “may mislead people into thinking they don’t need to register to get a ballot. Our intention is to connect the dots of conflicting statements and show the information in dispute so people can judge for themselves.”

On Wednesday evening, Twitter continued to add fact-checking labels and ‘manipulated media’ labels on hundreds of tweets.

U.S. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi called Trump’s planned order “outrageous” and a “distraction” from the coronavirus crisis.

Steve DelBianco, president of NetChoice, a trade group that counts Twitter, Facebook and Google among its members, said the executive order “is trampling the First Amendment by threatening the fundamental free speech rights of social media platforms.”

Under the order, the Commerce Department has 60 days to petition the FCC to adopt new rules and then the agency will review the petition. It could take anywhere from 12 to 24 months for the FCC to propose and adopt final rules.

Federal spending on online advertising will also be reviewed by U.S. government agencies to ensure there are no speech restrictions by a company.

UGANDA: Government to lose Shs21 billion worth of tourism taxes

Grounded: The tourism sub sect was almost grounded due to the effect of lockdowns across the globe. PHOTO BY EDGAR R BATTE 

MAY 28 2020

A new report has indicated that government is expected to lose a significant sum of tax revenue due to the Covid-19 crisis.
The report titled: Assessment of the economic impact of Covid-19 and interventions for tour operators in Uganda, notes that on average, government in 2019 had earned at least Shs112m from each tour company, translating into a combined sum of Shs34b.
However, this is expected to fall significantly with each tour operator, according to the report, in the foreseeable future expected to pay just 39 per cent of the Shs112m, which translates to about Shs13b.

The report, authored by Prof Celestine Katongole, a tourism planning and development expert, Mr Esau Atwongyeire, a certified leadership specialist and Ms Anna Grodzki, a tourism professional and head of Matoke Tours, sought to document the impact of Covid-19 on members of the Association of Uganda Tour Operators.

Key component
Tour operators are a key component in the tourism value chain with promotion and marketing roles that attract at least or more than 90 per cent of tourists in Uganda.
However, the sector has been adversely affected by Covid-19, which has incapacitated operations of the entire value chain.
According to available data, tourism, during the 2018/19 financial year, contributed about 7.7 per cent to gross domestic product resulting from growth of tourism arrivals of about 7.4 per cent.

The growth saw earnings from the sector increase to $1.92b and pushed jobs in the sector to about 667,600.
However, the outbreak of Covid-19 has significantly affected the sector and according to the report, players, especially tour operators, will not be able to meet at least 61 per cent of tax obligations, which means that government will lose close to Shs21b in tax revenue.
Beyond this, the report notes, other sectors will lose income due to reduced operation capacity by a number of tourism players.
For instance, according to the report, electricity consumption is expected to fall by 27.1 per cent, which will see a loss of at least Shs558m due to electricity distributors.

Water demand is expected to drop by 17.3 per cent, translating into third party loss of Shs152m, while consumption of telecom services is expected to fall by 43 per cent.
Job losses and salary cuts have already been registered in the sector with at least 90 per cent of employees affected.
The report notes that whereas over 60 per cent of companies in the sector are still paying their employees, about 40.6 per cent had already effected salary cuts.
Most temporary and contractual staff, the report notes, have been laid off and it was not immediately clear if they will be reinstated.

The reported noted that government and other stakeholders must work on a well-structured provision of small, well-targeted, non-refundable grants to allow operators in the sector recover from current shocks.
At least, according to the report, about Shs35b will be needed in grants to cater for operational costs, especially salaries and wages and rent, among others.
The report also notes that government, through Uganda Development Bank, must put in place a credit line of about $22m that will enable operators to access credit facilities of about 5 to 10 interest to enable them to buy tourism-related equipment.

Ugandan farmer kidnapped from garden, taken to Rwanda

MARTHA LEAH NANGALAMA - Now this story sounds like Kunta Kinte. I think it is in the book series or films called ROOTS. Kunta Kinte was in the palm plantation of his family minding his own business, digging, weeding and harvesting and POOF! Someone grabbed him, chained him up and sold him into slavery.  Here comes Uganda and Rwanda. These jokes are getting too stale. At least just go to war and we will be okay with it. After all, both of you put our 2 countries through decades of war and you think that you grab one lone farmer and we will be scared running to hide under our beds like little boys? Mtcheeeewww!!

Uganda-Rwanda border
May 28, 2020

Written by URN for THE OBSERVER

A Ugandan farmer, Obed Nicholas Tugumisirize alias Kacucu has been kidnapped from his garden in Kitojo village, Katuna town council at the Uganda-Rwanda border.

Kacucu has been missing since Monday, and his kidnappers allegedly disappeared with him to the other side of Rwanda. His family members have already reported a case of a missing person at Katuna police station. They say that he was kidnapped while in the garden together with his wife and children.

Katuna town council chairman Nelson Nshangabasheija suspects that the suspected kidnappers could be Rwandan security officers. Kigezi Region Police spokesperson Elly Maate says that the police have initiated inquiries to establish the victim’s whereabouts.

This is not the first incident involving Ugandan farmers and Rwandan authorities. In April 2019, three farmers; Susan Rwanjungu and Junensia Bazongoza, all residents of Mushenyi village and Jovia Ruvungafu, a resident of Nyinarushengye village in Katuna town council were arrested by heavily armed Rwandan soldiers while digging in their gardens and taken into Rwanda.

The Uganda-Rwanda border has been closed since February 2019 following a diplomatic row between the two countries. The spat started after Rwandan officials including President Paul Kagame accused Uganda authorities of abducting its nationals and locking them up in un-gazetted areas as well as hosting, sponsoring and facilitating dissidents.

Talks to restore diplomatic relations between the two countries stalled following the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic. This week, 38 Rwandan nationals who crossed into Uganda via Kalangal for fishing activities were forcefully quarantined at Buvuma college school as they wait for their coronavirus test results.

UGANDA: USA offers each vulnerable Ugandan adult Shs 100,000 per month

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USA offers each vulnerable Ugandan adult Shs 100,000 per month
May 28, 2020

Written by URN for THE OBSERVER

Vulnerable Ugandans are set to get paid between Shs 100,000 and Shs 240,000 per adult per month for the next three months.

The money will be provided by the United States Mission in Uganda from the US Agency for International Development which awarded an additional $10 million (about Shs 37.8 billion) funding this week to GiveDirectly, a global NGO specialized in delivering digital cash transfers.

Chris Krafft, the Head of the US Mission in Uganda says the money will support tens of thousands of vulnerable Ugandans who will receive direct cash grants of $25 (about Shs 100,000) a month per adult in the most affected communities over a period of three months.

This is based on the fact that as government imposed lockdowns to limit the spread of COVID-19, many families were suddenly unable to continue earning a living.

According to the GiveDirectily website, each selected household will receive $60–75 in total, spread over 1–3 payments. The transfer size of between Shs 100,000 and Shs 240,000 per select Ugandan is based on analysis of household consumption and minimum expenditure needs.

The first payments were sent out in April 2020.

"As many people are reduced to eating meagre rations and face the threat of starvation due to the impact of COVID-19 and necessary restrictions, the monthly cash grant will help them meet their basic needs,” Krafft explained.

The additional funding follows an earlier contribution of $15 million (about Shs 56 billion) to Uganda’s COVID-19 response. The money is supporting the salaries of additional personnel as well as critical equipment, helping to upgrade health centres with electronic data systems across the nation, and expanding laboratory capacity so that more testing can be done.

Krafft added that they have also contributed funding to enhance children protection, to support refugees and their host communities, and to monitor human rights abuses occurring as a result of the pandemic.

The United States secretary of state Mike Pompeo recently announced that America made a commitment of an additional $162 million for the global COVID-19 response bringing the total contribution to-date to more than $1 billion since the coronavirus outbreak began. Krafft says that it’s from this commitment that Uganda is getting additional funding of $10 million.

Last week, Prime Minister Dr Ruhakana Rugunda told parliament that the National COVID-19 Fund has received donations worth Shs 28 billion since its establishment, in response to the needs occasioned by an outbreak of coronavirus disease.

The donations he said, included cash, assorted food items, medical supplies, vehicles and other non-food items. The fund targets to raise Shs 170 billion.

Philly Lutaaya - 'Naalikwagadde'

Philly Lutaaya - 'Naalikwagadde'

Taken from the album 'Born In Africa'

UGANDA: Why do we forget easily?

I think I am going to stop reading bullshit from Uganda. All their news is written in broken English anyway (99.38%). This has been ruining my IMPECABLE English as taught to me by Sister Cephas (but we used to call her Capuis though. We were young and stupid).

Reading Uganda thinks can make one become DUMB.

Can you people believe that President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni launched our future woman MP Fool Figure.

Kyatandika kyiti. Over a year ago, President YoweriKaguta Museveni got his Minister of Tourism campaign for FULL FIGA and the campaign was sold off as Miss Curvy.
.....nebilala, nabalala. I think, I will add on.

Moncton, Uganda
Bududa, Canada

NTVUganda has added ACODE TALK SHOW: Fiscal responses to the COVID-19 pandemic video

ACODE TALK SHOW: Fiscal responses to the COVID-19 pandemic

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Madea Goes To Jail

Madea Goes To Jail

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Managing home generated stress | UNIVERSITY LEARNING

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The 1793 Yellow Fever Epidemic: The Washingtons, Hamilton and Jefferson -- Library of Congress

The 1793 Yellow Fever Epidemic: The Washingtons, Hamilton and Jefferson
By Neely Tucker
Published May 28, 2020 at 10:44AM

This is a guest post by Julie Miller, a historian in the Manuscript Division. 

Martha Washington, in an unfinished portrait by Gilbert Stuart. Theodor Horydczak Collection. Prints and Photographs Division.

In December 1793, Martha Washington bought a new book by Mathew Carey called A Short Account of the Malignant Fever Lately Prevalent in Philadelphia. The following February she bought a similar title, A Short Account of the Yellow Fever in Philadelphia, for the Reflecting Christian, by Henry Helmuth.

Her interest was personal. In the summer of 1793 when a devastating yellow fever epidemic hit Philadelphia she was in the city, then the U.S. capital, as the wife of the president. Carey, a publisher and bookseller, was also there. He joined a committee that helped the poor and sick who stayed behind when the wealthy fled. The Rev. Helmuth stayed to care for his congregants. The Washingtons remained in Philadelphia through the summer, but on Sept. 10 they left, as did nearly every member of city, state, and national government.

Yellow fever is a frightening disease. Benjamin Rush, a prominent Philadelphia doctor and author of another book about yellow fever, noted his patients’ chills and fever, yellowed skin, stomach pains, nausea, headache, sore eyes and delirium.

Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson wrote: “It is called a yellow fever, but is like nothing known or read of by the Physicians. The week before last the deaths were about 40. the last week about 80. and this week I think they will be 200. and it goes on spreading.”

Carey described how “acquaintances and friends avoided each other in the streets, and only signified their regard by a cold nod. The old custom of shaking hands fell into such disuse, that many were affronted at even the offer of the hand.” Carey estimated that out of a population of 50,000, about 17,000 left the city and 4,000 died. Later estimates put the death total as high as 5,000.

Between 1793 and 1805, waves of yellow fever attacked northern ports in the U.S. Then the disease retreated south, where it persisted through the end of the 19th century. At the turn of the 20th century, a time of great advances in bacteriology, scientists discovered that yellow fever was transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito. This eventually led to a vaccine, although the disease is still endemic in parts of Africa and South America.

The yellow fever epidemics that struck American cities soon after the birth of the nation left a powerful mark in the historical record. That mark is visible in books, newspapers, maps and more at the Library, but especially in the papers of members of George Washington’s administration. Leaving Philadelphia in 1793, Secretary of War Henry Knox wrote Washington that “the alarm of the people in all the Towns and villages on the road, and at New York, on account of the prevailing fever is really inexpressible.”

The president, at home at Mount Vernon, described Philadelphia as “now almost depopulated by removals & deaths.” Thomas Jefferson commented snidely about treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton, who was sick with the fever: “A man as timid as he is on the water, as timid on horseback, as timid in sickness, would be a phaenomenon if the courage of which he has the reputation in military occasions were genuine.”

Politics filtered into debates about yellow fever.

Contagionists” were likely to be Federalists who advocated restored trade with Britain and feared revolutionary France. They believed that yellow fever arrived on ships with refugees from France and its West Indian possessions. Pro-French Republicans, meanwhile, believed yellow fever was not contagious and that its causes were local.

Public officials, uncertain what to do, ordered quarantine and sanitation. Philadelphia’s free black citizens, including church leaders Absalom Jones and Richard Allen, were forced to fight back prejudice during the epidemic.

Benjamin Rush, 1802. Portrait: Charles Balthazar Saint-Mémin. Prints and Photographs Division.

Doctors were divided about treatment. Rush favored purging and bloodletting, while David Hosack and Edward Stevens, physician friends of Alexander Hamilton, believed in a milder treatment of quinine, wine and cold baths. Rush, whose methods were controversial, sighed, “I shall sooner or later be believed and forgiven.”

Some of the most anxious testimony is in letters from Philip Schuyler to his daughter, Elizabeth Hamilton, and her husband, Alexander. As yellow fever threatened Manhattan in 1803, Schuyler, a Revolutionary War general and New York politician, wrote Elizabeth that he was “under great anxiety for the safety of my dear Hamilton.” He warned his son-in-law to stay out of “the vortex of the pestilential effluvia.”  “I cannot, my dear sir,” he pleaded, choosing his words carefully to best express his emotion, “describe how much I dread apprehend from your exposing yourself to pestilence.”

Letter, Philip Schuyler to Alexander Hamilton, Aug. 15, 1803. Alexander Hamilton Papers, Manuscript Division.

By December 1793, the disease had retreated from Philadelphia. Thomas Jefferson wrote his daughter, “This place being entirely clear of all infection, the members of Congress are coming into it without fear.” George Washington was back, Jefferson reported, but his wife was not. Because so few of Martha Washington’s letters survive, we have to rely on fragments of information, such as this “small news,” as Jefferson called it, or the record of her book purchases, to learn how she reacted to the yellow fever epidemic.

Now that we are living through something similar, it is not hard for us to imagine her alarm – or her relief when it was over.

Subscribe to the blog— it’s free! — and the largest library in world history will send cool stories straight to your inbox.


NTVUganda has added Putting women and the disabled at the centre of COVID-19 response | COVID-19 DIALOGUE video

Putting women and the disabled at the centre of COVID-19 response | COVID-19 DIALOGUE

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NTVUganda has added How can refugee children not be left behind? video

How can refugee children not be left behind?

Large-scale, national efforts to utilize technology in support of remote learning, distance education and online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic are emerging and evolving quickly.But how do we ensure that no one is left behind? To speak to us about this, we have Simon Daale who works with Windle International an organisation focused on refugee education #NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit Follow us on Twitter Connect with us on Messenger via

NTVUganda has added Judiciary responds to easing of lockdown video

Judiciary responds to easing of lockdown

The judiciary has unveiled new measures in response to the easing of the lockdown, and part of these new measures, Normal operations in the Courts will have to wait until the general opening of public transport.And to speak to us about this, we have Jameson Karemani Karemera, the Judiciary Spokesperson. Mr Karemani, tell us about these new measures... How will the judges and magistrates work?What will these new measures mean interns of access to justice? #NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit Follow us on Twitter Connect with us on Messenger via

NTVUganda has added Kabarole leaders say learning materials are not enough video

Kabarole leaders say learning materials are not enough

Kabarole leaders say materials are not enough Leaders in Kabarole district are complaining of receiving inadequate copies of learning materials sent to the districts to facilitate home learning. According to the District Education Officer Kabarole, Patrick Rwakaikara received 362 learning materials for primary schools yet the number of enrolled pupils in government schools alone is 3500 pupilsLC1 Chairpersons have been advised to reserve a copy of each of the material for parents who can afford to photocopy the materials. #NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit Follow us on Twitter Connect with us on Messenger via

NTVUganda has added Island MPs oppose govt eviction plan video

Island MPs oppose govt eviction plan

Members of Parliament representing constituencies in the Islands have protested the move by the Ministry of Water and Environment to evict settlers within 200 meters from the lake shores.Led by Buvuma Islands MP, Robert Migadde, the MPs claim that most of the landing sites are within the 200 meters and effecting the directive will displace thousands of people. Speaker of parliament Rebecca Kadaga has now tasked the Minister of Environment to explain the operations. #NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit Follow us on Twitter Connect with us on Messenger via

NTVUganda has added Mbale hospital discharges its first COVID-19 patient video

Mbale hospital discharges its first COVID-19 patient

Mbale regional hospital has discharged its first coronavirus patient, a Kenyan Truck driver who tested positive for COVID19 from Malaba. This was at the Isolation centre with the district task force. The district still has 12 positive cases. Dr Juliana Abeso lead case manager revealed that most of the patients are responding well to treatment and are in stable condition and appealed to the community to accept them.#NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit Follow us on Twitter Connect with us on Messenger via

NTVUganda has added Mechanics want auto spare parts shops open video

Mechanics want auto spare parts shops open

Motor vehicle mechanics have appealed to government to reopen the auto spare part shops in order to enable them easily access the tools of their trade.Following President Museveni’s directive owners of private cars hit the roads on Tuesday but some have found their vehicles with serious mechanic conditions that require routine maintenance #NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit Follow us on Twitter Connect with us on Messenger via

NTVUganda has added UGANDA-KENYA BORDER: Situation update after end of truck driver’s strike video

UGANDA-KENYA BORDER: Situation update after end of truck driver’s strike

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NTVUganda has added Gov’t clarifies on easing movement restrictions video

Gov’t clarifies on easing movement restrictions

The Kampala Metropolitan Police Commander Mr Norman Musinga said all those who were issued with essential workers' stickers would not be allowed to move during curfew time. However, the Ministry of works through its spokesperson Susan Kataike has come out to clarify on the traffic chief's statements #NTVNews Subscribe to Our Channel For more news visit Follow us on Twitter Connect with us on Messenger via

Today in History - May 28 -- Library of Congress

Today in History - May 28

On May 28 and 29, 1851, the Ohio Woman’s Rights Convention met in Akron. Mrs. Frances D. Gage, convention president, began the proceedings with a stirring call to arms. Continue reading.

World-class athlete Jim Thorpe was born in a one-room cabin near Prague in Indian Territory, now Oklahoma, on May 28, 1888. Continue reading.

Click here to search Today in History for other historic moments.

Read more on Today in History - May 28

China's parliament approves Hong Kong national security bill

via @PerilofAfrica China's parliament on Thursday overwhelmingly approved directly imposing national security legislation on Hong Kong to tackle secession, subversion, terrorism and foreign interference in a city roiled last year by months of anti-government protests. Reuters World News

China parliament approves Hong Kong security bill as tensions with U.S. rise

via @PerilofAfrica China's parliament approved a decision on Thursday to go forward with national security legislation for Hong Kong that democracy activists in the city and Western countries fear could jeopardise its special autonomy and freedoms. Reuters World News

Indonesia reports 687 new coronavirus cases, 23 deaths

via @PerilofAfrica Indonesia reported 687 new coronavirus cases, bringing the total number of infections in the Southeast Asian country to 24,538, a health ministry official said on Thursday. Reuters World News

China parliament approves Hong Kong security bill as tensions with U.S. rise

via @PerilofAfrica China's parliament approved a decision on Thursday to go forward with national security legislation for Hong Kong that democracy activists in the city and Western countries fear could jeopardise its special autonomy and freedoms. Reuters World News

NTVUganda has added Impact of COVID-19 on small and medium enterprises | COVID-19 DIALOGUE video

Impact of COVID-19 on small and medium enterprises | COVID-19 DIALOGUE

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Nissan Expected to Post Loss for Fiscal Year, Skip Earnings Forecast

Mr. Probz - Waves (Robin Schulz Remix Radio Edit)

Mr. Probz - Waves (Robin Schulz Remix Radio Edit)

Download on iTunes: Listen on Spotify: Download the Original Version on iTunes: Download on Beatport: Music video for Robin Schulz' remix of Waves (original song by Mr Probz). (C) 2014 Left Lane Publishing & Talpa Music exclusively licensed to Sony Music Entertainment Netherlands Follow Mr. Probz Website: Facebook: Twitter: Instagram: Listen to Mr. Probz iTunes: Spotify:"

NTVUganda has added KICK STARTER: Will COVID-19 foster the needed change in Uganda's education system? video

KICK STARTER: Will COVID-19 foster the needed change in Uganda's education system?

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NTVUganda has added TAKE NOTE: Understanding the science behind face masks and sanitisers video

TAKE NOTE: Understanding the science behind face masks and sanitisers

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NTVUganda has added ON THE GROUND: Movement of private cars brings back life to garages around the city centre video

ON THE GROUND: Movement of private cars brings back life to garages around the city centre

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Wednesday, May 27, 2020

CORONAVIRUS: American Airlines to cut 30pct of management and support staff

An American Airlines Inc. plane departs Reagan National Airport (DCA) in Arlington, Virginia, U.S., on Monday, April 6, 2020. U.S. airlines are applying for federal aid to shore up their finances as passengers stay home amid the coronavirus pandemic. Photographer: Andrew Harrer/Bloomberg , Bloomberg

(Bloomberg) -- American Airlines Group Inc. plans to cut 30% of its management and support staff as it tries to weather the dramatic downturn brought on by the coronavirus pandemic.

The move was announced in a letter to staff from Elise Eberwein, American’s executive vice president of people and global engagement. Other cost-saving steps include requiring staff to take 50% of their vacation by Sept. 30 and not allowing untaken days to roll into 2021. The airline is also offering a new voluntary early out program that staff can apply for by June 10.

“Although our pre-pandemic liquidity, the significant financial assistance provided by the government, and the cash we’ve raised in the capital markets provide a foundation for stability, we need to reduce our cost structure, including our most significant expense — the cost of compensation and benefits,” Eberwein wrote. “We must plan for operating a smaller airline for the foreseeable future.”

An $85 Billion Airline Rescue May Only Prolong the Pain

The coronavirus outbreak and subsequent travel restrictions have put airlines the world over under immense pressure. United Airlines Holdings Inc. said in early May it plans to cut at least 30% of its managerial and administrative jobs, while several carriers elsewhere have collapsed or sought bankruptcy court protection, including Latin America’s biggest this week.

American’s Chief Executive Officer Doug Parker said Wednesday that bankruptcy isn’t among the options he’d consider, pushing back against rumors that the debt-laden carrier would be forced down that route. “Bankruptcy is failure,” he said. “We’re not going to do that.”

The global airline industry’s total debt could balloon 28% this year to $550 billion, which includes $123 billion in financial aid from governments, the International Air Transport Association said Tuesday.

“Government aid is helping to keep the industry afloat,” IATA Director General Alexandre de Juniac said in a statement. “The next challenge will be preventing airlines from sinking under the burden of debt that the aid is creating.”
©2020 Bloomberg L.P.

Philly Lutaaya - 'Nkoye Okwegomba'

Philly Lutaaya - 'Nkoye Okwegomba'

Taken from the album 'Born In Africa'

A WHOLE NEW BALL GAME - Days of unity: When Super Rugby came to Soweto

Francois Hougaard of the Bulls scores the first try during the Super 14 final match between Vodacom Bulls and Vodacom Stormers at Orlando Stadium on 29 May 2010 in Soweto. (Photo: Lee Warren / Gallo Images) Less
By Craig Ray, DAILY MAVERICK, 28 May 2020

Francois Hougaard of the Bulls scores the first try during the Super 14 final match between Vodacom Bulls and Vodacom Stormers at Orlando Stadium on 29 May 2010 in Soweto. (Photo: Lee Warren / Gallo Images) Less

Ten years ago, the Bulls moved out of their Loftus Versfeld home to accommodate some very welcome guests – the world – for the 2010 Fifa World Cup. But the Pretoria team had a Super Rugby semi-final and, as it turned out, a final to play. Instead of seeking a familiar alternative, they took the game to Orlando Stadium in Soweto and the rest is, well, history.

Vilakazi Street in Soweto had never seen and heard anything like it. At 10pm on the night of 29 May 2010, hundreds of twin-cab bakkies, pumping out Kurt Darren, Bok van Blerk and Die Campbells competed with blaring vuvuzelas, trumpeted by large Afrikaans men in the afterglow of a victory, fuelled by brandy and triumph. The mood was glorious, friendly and spontaneous, as one of the most epic parties in South African sports history went into full swing.
Rugby fans enjoy themselves before the Super 14 final match between Vodacom Bulls and Vodacom Stormers at Orlando Stadium on 29 May 2010 in Soweto. (Photo: Lefty Shivambu / Gallo Images)
Earlier in the day, the Bulls had beaten the Stormers 25-17 to claim their third Super Rugby title in four years. It established the Pretoria-based franchise as the dominant power in world club rugby. But that was a minor story compared to one about the venue for the match. How did a team from the heart of conservative white South Africa, become the darlings of Soweto, even if only for a night?

Rewind to 2003

The journey to Orlando Stadium, although unknown at the time, began seven years earlier, in 2003. It was a time when the Bulls were the laughing stock of rugby. They had won two out of 22 Super Rugby matches in 2001 and 2002, which included losing all 11 matches in ’01. In 2003, playing to a full house at Loftus, let alone at the Orlando Stadium, was as far-fetched as the Bulls playing against the All Blacks on the moon.
Orlando Stadium. (Photo: supplied)
In 2003, a Local Organising Committee (LOC) was preparing its bid to Fifa for the right to host the 2010 World Cup in South Africa. Three years earlier, South Africa had lost by one vote to stage the 2006 tournament after New Zealand Fifa member Charlie Dempsey abstained from voting in scandalous circumstances. It was later alleged in Swiss court papers that Dempsey took a bribe to ensure the 2006 tournament went to Germany.

Undeterred, South Africa decided to bid again. The bid book needed to sell the country’s capability to Fifa, but also balance a strained budget. Building new stadiums was costly. Repurposing older stadiums was much more cost-effective and elegant, so long as the arena was already close to meeting requirements. 
Rugby fans have a blast before the 2010 Super 14 rugby final in Soweto. (Photo: Lefty Shivambu / Gallo Images)
Loftus Versfeld – the spiritual home of rugby in Pretoria – met the standard. The cathedral built on the sweat and blood of men such as Uli Schmidt, Louis Moolman and Naas Botha would be a perfect venue for football stars to write their own legend.

When the LOC came knocking on Bulls chief executive Barend van Graan’s door in 2003, asking whether Loftus would make itself available for football and the 2010 World Cup, he was more than willing to listen. 
Bulls fans wait for the start of the 2010 Super 14 final against the Stormers. (Photo: EPA / Kim Ludbrook)
Only a smattering of fans attended Bulls games at the time. Corporate suite and season-ticket income was poor and the stadium itself would need upgrading in the near future. If South Africa won the right to host the 2010 Fifa World Cup, Loftus would receive a much needed R140-million upgrade that would set it up for another decade or more.

“When we became part of the 2010 Fifa World Cup plans, the Bulls were not playing well,” Van Graan told Daily Maverick. “Honestly, it was not in our mind at the time that hosting a Super Rugby semi-final and final at home, seven years in the future, would be an issue. 
Fans prepare for the Super 14 final in 2010. (Photo: Lefty Shivambu / Gallo Images)
“As it turned out, in 2009 Loftus hosted the Confederations Cup [traditionally held one year before the World Cup in the host country as a trial run] but there was no clash with dates even though the Bulls made the final that year too.”

South Africa won the right to host the World Cup in 2004 and from that day on, the clock started ticking to 11 June 2010 and the World Cup’s opening game.

Van Graan perhaps underestimated his own abilities as a CEO because he played a crucial role in establishing the Bulls as a world force between 2003-2010. The Bulls’ success ultimately led to the logistical problems of finding a stadium for the 2010 Super Rugby final. But in 2003, the Bulls’ evolution into a rugby powerhouse was not obvious to most. 

Rugby fans on their way to Orlando Stadium in 2010. (Photo: Lefty Shivambu / Gallo Images)
Despite heavy pressure from old Bulls’ players, Van Graan stuck with an ambitious and eccentric young coach named Heyneke Meyer. By 2005 the Bulls were play-off contenders and in 2007 they won their first Super Rugby title. Meyer moved on, but his assistant Frans Ludeke was elevated to head coach and continued to evolve the team, which won the titles again in 2009.

During this time, Loftus had undergone its facelift and the 2010 Bulls played in a newly refurbished arena, ready for the Fifa World Cup. It would, however, not be a part of the Super Rugby story if the Bulls made it into the postseason.

Fifa requirements meant that they took control of venues for the World Cup three weeks before the tournament started. When the 2010 Super Rugby fixtures were released in late 2009, everyone at the Bulls understood the potential problem that stemmed from their own success. The dates for the semi-final and final were in the Fifa window. Loftus was out of bounds.

Finding a venue for 2010 Super Rugby play-offs

“From the moment South Africa won the bid for Fifa World Cup 2010, the dates for the tournament were written into the contract,” Hugo Kemp, Loftus Versfeld Stadium manager, told Daily Maverick.

“The 2010 Super Rugby season was still years away when the World Cup bid was won, but we knew even then, that the rugby dates would be touch and go.

“By the start of 2010, we knew we had to make some big decisions. As defending Super Rugby champions, we understood that the Bulls would be in play-off contention again, so we had to look at our options in the event we needed to host a semi-final and possibly a final.
Former Bulls CEO Barend van Graan and Loftus stadium Manager Hugo Kemp. (Photo supplied)
“The complication was that most of the options we considered were in some way or another involved in the Fifa World Cup, as training grounds or fans parks, which really limited us.

“At the time, we had a strong relationship with a company called Stadium Management South Africa, who really helped us in sourcing options. They still manage Dobsonville Stadium, the FNB Stadium [which hosted the 2010 World Cup final] and the Orlando Stadium. At that stage, Orlando was set aside as a World Cup training facility. But the advantage of that was that certain training venues were only required by Fifa at a later stage, unlike match venues such as Loftus. We can’t take all the credit for deciding on Orlando because it really came down to limited options.”
Duane Vermeulen of the Stormers jumps over the maul during the Super 14 final between the Bulls and the Stormers at Orlando Stadium. (Photo: EPA /Kim Ludbrook)
Derek Blanckensee is now general manager at football giants Orlando Pirates, but in 2010 he was the Competition Chief Officer for the LOC. He proposed Orlando Stadium as a possible venue for the Bulls’ play-off games.

“Barend called me and asked what options there were,” Blanckensee told Daily Maverick. “I knew Orlando Stadium would suit their needs, but I first had to check with the stadium designer that it had the right dimensions for hosting rugby. He assured me it did as the stadium was redesigned to be capable of hosting both football and rugby. 
The Vodacom Bulls celebrate after winning the final against the Stormers in 2010. (Photo: Gallo Images / Foto24 / Christiaan Kotze)
“Although the stadium was originally listed as a Fifa World Cup training venue, it was no longer going to be used for that purpose. Training venues needed to be in a certain radius of team hotels, and the Orlando Stadium didn’t meet those requirements. It was only going to be used as the venue for the Fifa World Cup opening concert.”

After the success of the 2010 play-offs at the Orlando Stadium, the Bulls received praise for their marketing savvy in taking the games to Soweto. But Van Graan admits that it was more out of necessity than design.

“We looked at the Lucas Moripe Stadium in Atteridgeville and SuperSport Park in Centurion as two other options,” Van Graan says. “But both have capacities of fewer than 30,000 and Lucas Moripe was also being used by the German team as a training venue.

“SuperSport Park was also a fan park for the World Cup, which was another factor counting against it. We were in a mess for a while. Before we considered Orlando, the only semi-feasible options were to play at Newlands in Cape Town or King’s Park in Durban.

“Through the assistance of the LOC and Stadium Management South Africa, we made a deal for the use of Orlando Stadium for the Super Rugby semi-final, and only the semi-final, because Orlando Stadium was set to host the World Cup’s opening concert.

“The concert was scheduled for the Wednesday after the Super Rugby final [29 May] and we didn’t expect to be able to play at Orlando. But at that stage all I said was: ‘let’s get somewhere to play the semi-final and we’ll worry about a final venue afterwards if we need to.’

“So, afterwards we had to ask the LOC if we could use Orlando for the final and they helped make it happen. From the Bulls’ side, it was an easy sell to the board after the success of the semi-final [the Bulls beat the Crusaders 39-24]. We all realised the potential for a great occasion and saw it as a quantum leap forward for the Bulls and rugby.”

Challenges of playing in Soweto

Hosting professional sports events requires the seamless interactions of many moving parts, which is a tough enough challenge at the best of times. Taking the biggest provincial rugby match in the world into a new venue at short notice posed many challenges, not least of which came from Bulls supporters, who were initially sceptical of Orlando Stadium.

Most of those fears were allayed after the semi-final, which proved a crucial dry-run for the final from a logistics perspective. But severe traffic jams meant that the Orlando Stadium only filled by halftime in the semi-final. The Bulls also refined their strategy in terms of assisting supporters to travel to Orlando Stadium, about 60km from Pretoria.

“We had some challenges with supporters, who were really worried that it wouldn’t work and were angry we were going to Soweto,” Van Graan recalls. “I was called all sorts of names by some of them.

“Also, on the day of the semi-final, which was due to kick off at 5pm a sold-out FNB Stadium was having its first dry run for the World Cup, hosting a match between Chiefs and Pirates at 3pm. That was another 90,000 people a couple of kilometres up the road. It led to some issues with traffic, as most of the traffic department left us alone, and went to the soccer.

“We had discussions about what to do because rugby supporters were stuck. One option was to delay kick-off, but with TV schedules and the players’ mental state to consider, it wasn’t an option. It took until halftime to fill the stadium, but the rest is history.

Even for the vanquished Stormers, who were worthy contenders in 2010, the bitterness and pain of defeat in their second, and so far, last appearance in the final, was offset by knowing they were part of something special.

“When we won the semi we suddenly had another problem though because we needed a venue for the final. Fortunately, LOC chairman Danny Jordaan was supportive and he lobbied Fifa to allow us to play.”

By that stage, almost the entire Bulls staff had vacated their offices at Loftus as the stadium had been taken over by Fifa. Some worked at Vodacom’s offices in Hatfield, others at SuperSport Park, while Kemp and the operations department retained their offices at Loftus.

“It was much like we are working now during lockdown, only without Zoom and Google Hangouts,” Kemp says with a laugh. “It was a logistic and communication challenge in every aspect, from ticket sales to preparing the Orlando Stadium.

“The capacity of Orlando Stadium was a little under 40,000. We knew it would be sold out for the final, especially as the mood had shifted and supporters not only wanted to watch a rugby match, but be part of an incredible occasion. So, we had to try to accommodate our season-ticket and suite holders, which required about 27,000 tickets at that time.

“It was a big advantage having played the semi-final at Orlando because it gave us some time to rectify the issues for the final. In the two weeks of the semi-final and final I spent most of my time at Orlando liaising with the various role players, including the Johannesburg traffic department.

“In Pretoria I had great relationships with organisations such as the traffic department and police because I had been working with them daily, for years. Now, I had to go to Joburg for the most important game of the year, in a new stadium and work with people I had no relationship with. It was a challenge because they had their own ideas how to do things, but ultimately it paid off and everyone saw the bigger picture. The commitment was amazing and everyone wanted to make it work.”

Game Day

The Bulls laid on more buses for fans, from more collection points around Pretoria and through the hard work of many people, the event was a celebration and in a way, started the party that was the 2010 Fifa World Cup.

Residents of Soweto opened their arms, hearts and homes to rugby fans who descended on Orlando for a magical day that could be repeated in future, but never replicated.

Bulls fans mingled in the streets with Soweto locals, some even taking over the front yards of homes in Orlando to braai and kuier before kick-off. In a beer tent outside the stadium Afrikaans duo Die Campbells belted out sokkie treffers while black and white supporters danced as if they were listening to a kwaito beat.

Kurt Darren’s rendition of the national anthem was spine-tingling while the supporters singing of Nkosi Sikelel ’iAfrika brought tears to the eyes. A predominantly white rugby crowd had never sung the first part of the anthem with more gusto. Something brilliant took over that Saturday.

“I’ve never played in an atmosphere like it,” former Bulls and Bok great Fourie du Preez told Daily Maverick. “Those two weeks in Soweto were the two favourite weeks of my Bulls career. I remember looking out of the bus window on the way to the stadium and being blown away.

“Bulls supporters were having braais on the driveways of residents of Orlando, who had opened their homes. The stigma of the Bulls being conservative, white Afrikaners changed that day as they sat in shebeens and shared life with fellow South Africans. It was mind-boggling.

“Inside the stadium the atmosphere was something I had never experienced before. The sound of the vuvuzelas seemed to suck the air out of the arena. I can’t really explain it, but it was different, in a great way.”

Even for the vanquished Stormers, who were worthy contenders in 2010, the bitterness and pain of defeat in their second, and so far, last appearance in the final, was offset by knowing they were part of something special.

“It was the last year of Super 14. The tournament was set to expand to 15 teams in 2011 and we had a chance to play the Bulls, not at Loftus, but at the Orlando Stadium in the Super Rugby final,” recalls Stormers lock Anton van Zyl.

“We had all been wearing Bafana Bafana shirts to practice on Fridays as part of the national build-up for the Fifa World Cup. Suddenly we were, in a way, an integral part of the excitement because that final was being played in Orlando. That brought another edge to the occasion, for sure.

“Were the Stormers happy the game wasn’t at Loftus? Let me put it this way: we were more excited about the prospect of going to Orlando Stadium than we were about going to Loftus. That was because it was a once-off occasion, as much as anything. We had won away twice in New Zealand that year so we were confident we could win anywhere.

“We flew up the day before and did our captain’s run at the Orlando Stadium on Friday. I don’t recall much about that, but what I do vividly recall is the bus ride to the stadium from our hotel in Fourways.

Television statistics of the game revealed some staggering numbers, especially as it was also shown on the free-to-air SABC as well as rights holder SuperSport. Over 2.9 million people viewed the match – a more than 100% jump from the 2009 final when the Bulls beat the Chiefs at Loftus.

“I probably shouldn’t say this, but I realised something really big was happening when the police escort, leading the team bus down the highway, became overzealous. There were some cars not giving way fast enough, so the police escorts forced their way alongside those vehicles, wound down their windows, pulled out their weapons and pointed them at those drivers demanding the cars to pull over. It was insane.

“I didn’t play Tests, but I played games for the Barbarians and in some finals and to this day, I get goosebumps when I think about that atmosphere. To say it was electric, is like saying the coronavirus is a lethal pandemic. It’s an understatement. The noise, suspense and electricity was unlike anything I encountered before, or after.”

Stormers wing Bryan Habana, who had won two Super Rugby titles with the Bulls in 2007 and 2009, had moved south to Cape Town and was enjoying a strong debut season with the Stormers. He had intimate knowledge of the Bulls and of playing at Loftus, but because the final was in Orlando, he was just as bowled over as his teammates.

“In that game, that final, I thought I knew what we were going to face but looking back, I had no comprehension of what we ultimately did face,” Habana told Daily Maverick.

“It was so loud, I couldn’t hear calls from teammates five metres away. Even though we had worked on some non-verbal communication plans in the build-up to the game, it was so much more intense when we faced the reality. We didn’t adapt as quickly as we needed to, and the Bulls made a faster start, which cost us the game.”

Missed opportunity

The success of the occasion, the memories for those there and the goodwill it generated, particularly for the Bulls, was never fully harnessed in subsequent years.

After the match, Bulls captain Victor Matfield and coach Ludeke were convinced it was the beginning of a journey that would link the Bulls and Orlando for years to come

“We saw what sport can do for the country in the last two weeks,” Matfield said. “It can build bridges and break down barriers. People who 14 days ago would never have come to Soweto now love Soweto. Hopefully, the soccer World Cup will take this feeling further and continue the momentum we have created.”

Ludeke added: “I can’t see why we wouldn’t play here again because it’s an amazing atmosphere, which is what you want as a home team. Overseas teams will battle here with a combination of altitude and atmosphere where the crowd gets into your head.

“Soweto has climbed into hearts and it has been an awesome experience for us.”

Television statistics of the game revealed some staggering numbers, especially as it was also shown on the free-to-air SABC as well as rights holder SuperSport. Over 2.9 million people viewed the match – a more than 100% jump from the 2009 final when the Bulls beat the Chiefs at Loftus.

The percentage of black viewers rose by a staggering 127% between 2009 and 2010, which accounted for 30% of the total measured viewing audience, according to sports and marketing research body BMI. The fact that the match was shown on SABC was a major factor. But, because the match was played in Soweto, it enticed a new audience that should have been harnessed and embraced subsequently. Instead, what should have been the start of a journey for the Bulls and the larger rugby community, has ended up being a moment frozen in a time capsule.

“It’s disappointing that the Bulls have never been back to Orlando,” Du Preez says. “I don’t know how many people live in Soweto, but there are millions and most of them became Bulls supporters because of those two games. We received so many pictures and messages from black rugby fans in Bulls jerseys in the days leading up to the final, and afterwards as well. It’s unfortunate that we didn’t have the vision to go back and make a yearly thing out of it.

“The players loved the experience and they would have loved to go back, do clinics and work with the community to take rugby to the next level. We missed an opportunity because it can’t be repeated. It was spontaneous and not forced.”

Wikipedia's Article of the Day May 28, 2020: Great spotted woodpecker

The great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) is a medium-sized woodpecker with pied black and white plumage and a red patch on the lower belly. Males and young birds also have red markings on the neck or head.

This species is found across Eurasia and parts of North Africa, in all types of woodlands. Some individuals have a tendency to wander, leading to the recent recolonisation of Ireland. Great spotted woodpeckers chisel into trees to find food or excavate nest holes, and also drum for contact and territorial advertisement; they have anatomical adaptations to manage the physical stresses from the hammering action.

They can extract seeds from pine cones and insect larvae from inside trees, and will eat eggs and chicks of other birds. Both parents incubate the clutch of four to six eggs and continue to feed the chicks for about ten days after they fledge. The species has a large population and is not threatened.

Learn more on Wikipedia

Wikipedia's Article of the Day May 27, 2020: Australasian Antarctic Expedition



The Australasian Antarctic Expedition (1911–1914), headed by Douglas Mawson, explored the largely uncharted coast of Antarctica due south of Australia. Mawson was inspired to lead his own venture by his experiences on Ernest Shackleton's Nimrod expedition in 1907–1909.

During its time in Antarctica, the Australasian Antarctic Expedition's sledging parties covered around 2,600 miles (4,180 km) of unexplored territory. Its ship, SY Aurora (pictured), navigated 1,800 miles (2,900 km) of unmapped coastline. Scientific activities included meteorological measurements, magnetic observations, an expansive oceanographic program, and the collection of many biological and geological samples, including the discovery of the first meteorite found in Antarctica.

The expedition was the first to establish and maintain wireless contact between Antarctica and Australia. Its broad exploration program laid the groundwork for Australia's later territorial claims in Antarctica.

Learn more on Wikipedia

BUSINESS: What is the Difference Between Copyright, Patent and Trademark?

MARTHA LEAH NANGALAMA - Well, one of the tabloids I write for and one of the two editors for it just got taken off the Internet by Go Daddy with no warning at all. I understand that our name for our news site violated copyright. Except, we did not violate copyright or patents.

After spending all of May 27, 2020 trying to understand why Go Daddy took our site down, I realised that the complaint was about Trademark. We got zero warning. Go Daddy had our site for over 3 years and why today, they decide to just take it down with no warning is still a question to be asked.

In the meantime, instead of just fuming, I took a look at the definitions of copyright, patent and trademark and below is what I got off the Internet. MLN

Photo Credit: NiroDesign/iStock/thinkstock Photo Edited by: Copyright Alliance
What is the Difference Between Copyright, Patent and Trademark?


Copyright, patent, and trademark are all different types of intellectual property (IP). Although the three types of IP are very different, people often confuse them.

A brief description of copyright, patents, and trademarks, including a brief discussion of how these forms of IP differ from copyright, is provided below.

What’s Copyright?

A copyright is a collection of rights automatically vested to you once you have created an original work. To understand how these rights can be used or licensed, it is helpful to analogize them to a bundle of sticks, where each stick represents a separate right vested to you as the owner. These rights include the right to reproduce the work, to prepare derivative works, to distribute copies, to perform the work publicly, and to display the work publicly.
As the copyright owner, you have the authority to keep each “stick,” to transfer them individually to one or more people, or to transfer them collectively to one or more people. This can be accomplished through licensing, assigning, and other forms of transfers. The power of copyright allows you to choose the way your work is made available to the public.

What’s Patent?

The primary goal of the patent law is to encourage innovation and commercialization of technological advances. Patent law incentivizes inventors to publicly disclose their inventions in exchange for certain exclusive rights. A patent protects inventions. These inventions can include new and useful processes, machines, manufactures, compositions of matter as well as improvements to these. Certain computer programs may fall within the subject matter protected by both patents and copyrights. In this respect the patent system compliments copyright protection by providing protection for functional aspects of the software, which are not protected by copyright. Unlike with copyright protection, to get patent protection one must first apply for and be granted a patent from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). Unlike the copyright registration process, the patent application process is expensive, complex, difficult, and time consuming and generally should not be attempted without the assistance of an experienced patent attorney or agent.

What’s Trademark?

According to the USPTO, “a trademark is a word, phrase, symbol, and/or design that identifies and distinguishes the source of the goods of one party from those of others. A service mark is a word, phrase, symbol, and/or design that identifies and distinguishes the source of a service rather than goods. Examples include brand names, slogans, and logos. (The term “trademark” is often used in a general sense to refer to both trademarks and service marks.)” Similar to copyright, a person does not need not register a trademark or service mark to receive protection rights, but there are certain legal benefits to registering the mark with the USPTO. There is rarely an overlap between trademark and copyright law but it can happen — for instance, when a graphic illustration is used as a logo the design may be protected both under copyright and trademark.

What’s Protected? Original works of authorship, such as books, articles, songs, photographs, sculptures, choreography, sound recordings, motion pictures, and other works Inventions, such as processes, machines, manufactures, compositions of matter as well as improvements to these Any word, phrase, symbol, and/or design that identifies and distinguishes the source of the goods of one party from those of others

Requirements to be Protected A work must be original, creative and fixed in a tangible medium An invention must be new, useful and nonobvious A mark must be distinctive (i.e., that is, it must be capable of identifying the source of a particular good)

Term of Protection Author’s life plus 70 more years. 20 years For as long as the mark is used in commerce

Rights Granted Right to control the reproduction, making of derivative works, distribution and public performance and display of the copyrighted works Right to prevent others from making, selling using or importing the patented invention Right to use the mark and to prevent others from using similar marks in a way that would cause a likelihood-of-confusion about the origin of the goods or services.

Polymath - What does it mean?

106 Best Polymath images in 2020 | Design observer, Da vinci ...

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A polymath (Greek: πολυμαθής, polymathēs, "having learned much"; Latin: homo universalis, "universal man")[1] is an individual whose knowledge spans a significant number of subjects, known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems. The earliest recorded use of the term in English is from 1624, in the second edition of The Anatomy of Melancholy by Robert Burton;[2] the form polymathist is slightly older, first appearing in the Diatribae upon the first part of the late History of Tithes of Richard Montagu in 1621.[3] Use in English of the similar term polyhistor dates from the late sixteenth century.[4]

In Western Europe, the first work to use polymathy in its title (De Polymathia tractatio: integri operis de studiis veterum) was published in 1603 by Johann von Wowern, a Hamburg philosopher.[5][6][7] Von Wowern defined polymathy as "knowledge of various matters, drawn from all kinds of studies [...] ranging freely through all the fields of the disciplines, as far as the human mind, with unwearied industry, is able to pursue them".[5] Von Wowern lists erudition, literature, philology, philomathy and polyhistory as synonyms.

Polymaths include the great scholars and thinkers of the Islamic Golden Age, the period of Renaissance and the Enlightenment, who excelled at several fields in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and the arts. In the Italian Renaissance, the idea of the polymath was expressed by Leon Battista Alberti (1404–1472) in the statement that "a man can do all things if he will".[8]

Embodying a basic tenet of Renaissance humanism that humans are limitless in their capacity for development, the concept led to the notion that people should embrace all knowledge and develop their capacities as fully as possible. This is expressed in the term Renaissance man, often applied to the gifted people of that age who sought to develop their abilities in all areas of accomplishment: intellectual, artistic, social, physical, and spiritual.

Renaissance man[edit]
"Renaissance man" redirects here. For use as a title of cultural works, see Renaissance Man.
"Renaissance man" was first recorded in written English in the early 20th century.[9] It is now used to refer to great thinkers living before, during, or after the Renaissance. Leonardo da Vinci has often been described as the archetype of the Renaissance man, a man of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination".[10] Many notable polymaths lived during the Renaissance period, a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th through to the 17th century that began in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spread to the rest of Europe. These polymaths had a rounded approach to education that reflected the ideals of the humanists of the time. A gentleman or courtier of that era was expected to speak several languages, play a musical instrument, write poetry and so on, thus fulfilling the Renaissance ideal.

The idea of a universal education was essential to achieving polymath ability, hence the word university was used to describe a seat of learning. At this time, universities did not specialize in specific areas, but rather trained students in a broad array of science, philosophy and theology. This universal education gave them a grounding from which they could continue into apprenticeship toward becoming a master of a specific field.

When someone is called a "Renaissance man" today, it is meant that rather than simply having broad interests or superficial knowledge in several fields, the individual possesses a more profound knowledge and a proficiency, or even an expertise, in at least some of those fields.[11]

Some dictionaries use the term "Renaissance man" to describe someone with many interests or talents,[12] while others give a meaning restricted to the Renaissance and more closely related to Renaissance ideals.

In academia[edit]
Robert Root-Bernstein and colleagues[edit]
Robert Root-Bernstein is considered the principal responsible for rekindling the interest on polymathy in the scientific community.[13][14] He is a professor of physiology at Michigan State University and has been awarded the MacArthur Fellowship. He and colleagues, especially Michèle Root-Bernstein, authored many important works spearheading the modern field of polymathy studies.

Root-Bernstein's works emphasize the contrast between the polymath and two other types: the specialist and the dilettante. The specialist demonstrates depth but lacks breadth of knowledge. The dilettante demonstrates superficial breadth but tend to acquire skills merely "for their own sake without regard to understanding the broader applications or implications and without integrating it" (R. Root-Bernstein, 2009, p. 857). Conversely, the polymath is a person with a level of expertise that is able to "put a significant amount of time and effort into their avocations and find ways to use their multiple interests to inform their vocations" (R. Root-Bernstein, 2009, p. 857).[15][16][17][18][19]

A key point in the work of Root-Bernstein and colleagues is the argument in favor of the universality of the creative process. That is, although creative products, such as a painting, a mathematical model or a poem, can be domain-specific, at the level of the creative process, the mental tools that lead to the generation of creative ideas are the same, be it in the arts or science.[17] These mental tools are sometimes called intuitive tools of thinking. It is therefore not surprising that many of the most innovative scientists have serious hobbies or interests in artistic activities, and that some of the most innovative artists have an interest or hobbies in the sciences.[15][18][20][21]

Root-Bernstein and colleagues' research is an important counterpoint to the claim by some psychologists that creativity is a domain-specific phenomenon. Through their research, Root-Bernstein and colleagues conclude that there are certain comprehensive thinking skills and tools that cross the barrier of different domains and can foster creative thinking: "[creativity researchers] who discuss integrating ideas from diverse fields as the basis of creative giftedness ask not 'who is creative?' but 'what is the basis of creative thinking?' From the polymathy perspective, giftedness is the ability to combine disparate (or even apparently contradictory) ideas, sets of problems, skills, talents, and knowledge in novel and useful ways. Polymathy is therefore the main source of any individual's creative potential" (R. Root-Bernstein, 2009, p. 854). In "Life Stages of Creativity", Robert and Michèle Root-Bernstein suggest six typologies of creative life stages. These typologies based on real creative production records first published by Root-Bernstein, Bernstein, and Garnier (1993).

Type 1 represents people who specialize in developing one major talent early in life (e.g., prodigies) and successfully exploit that talent exclusively for the rest of their lives.
Type 2 individuals explore a range of different creative activities (e.g., through worldplay or a variety of hobbies) and then settle on exploiting one of these for the rest of their lives.
Type 3 people are polymathic from the outset and manage to juggle multiple careers simultaneously so that their creativity pattern is constantly varied.
Type 4 creators are recognized early for one major talent (e.g., math or music) but go on to explore additional creative outlets, diversifying their productivity with age.
Type 5 creators devote themselves serially to one creative field after another.
Type 6 people develop diversified creative skills early and then, like Type 5 individuals, explore these serially, one at a time.
Finally, his studies suggest that understanding polymathy and learning from polymathic exemplars can help structure a new model of education that better promotes creativity and innovation: "we must focus education on principles, methods, and skills that will serve them [students] in learning and creating across many disciplines, multiple careers, and succeeding life stages" (R. Root-Bernstein & M. Root-Bernstein, 2017, p. 161).[22]

Peter Burke[edit]
Peter Burke, Professor Emeritus of Cultural History and Fellow of Emmanuel College at Cambridge, discussed the theme of polymathy in some of his works. He has presented a comprehensive historical overview of the ascension and decline of the polymath as, what he calls, an "intellectual species" (see Burke, 2012; 2010).[23][24]

He observes that in ancient and medieval times, scholars did not have to specialize. However, from the 17th century on, the rapid rise of new knowledge in the Western world—both from the systematic investigation of the natural world and from the flow of information coming from other parts of the world—was making it increasingly difficult for individual scholars to master as many disciplines as before. Thus, an intellectual retreat of the polymath species occurred: "from knowledge in every [academic] field to knowledge in several fields, and from making original contributions in many fields to a more passive consumption of what has been contributed by others" (Burke, 2010, p. 72).

Given this change in the intellectual climate, it has since then been more common to find "passive polymaths", who consume knowledge in various domains but make their reputation in one single discipline, than "proper polymaths", who—through a feat of "intellectual heroism"—manage to make serious contributions to several disciplines.

However, Burke warns that in the age of specialization, polymathic people are more necessary than ever, both for synthesis—to paint the big picture—and for analysis. He says: "It takes a polymath to 'mind the gap' and draw attention to the knowledges that may otherwise disappear into the spaces between disciplines, as they are currently defined and organized" (Burke, 2012, p. 183).

Finally, he suggests that governments and universities should nurture a habitat in which this "endangered species" can survive, offering students and scholars the possibility of interdisciplinary work.

Kaufman, Beghetto and colleagues[edit]
James C. Kaufman, from the Neag School of Education at the University of Connecticut, and Ronald A. Beghetto, from the same university, investigated the possibility that everyone could have the potential for polymathy as well as the issue of the domain-generality or domain-specificity of creativity.[25][26]

Based on their earlier four-c model of creativity, Beghetto and Kaufman[27][28] proposed a typology of polymathy, ranging from the ubiquitous mini-c polymathy to the eminent but rare Big-C polymathy, as well as a model with some requirements for a person (polymath or not) to be able to reach the highest levels of creative accomplishment. They account for three general requirements—intelligence, motivation to be creative and an environment that allows creative expression—that are needed for any attempt at creativity to succeed. Then, depending on the domain of choice, more specific abilities will be required. The more that one's abilities and interests match the requirements of a domain, the better. While some will develop their specific skills and motivations for specific domains, polymathic people will display intrinsic motivation (and the ability) to pursue a variety of subject matters across different domains.[28]

Regarding the interplay of polymathy and education, they suggest that rather than asking whether every student has multicreative potential, educators might more actively nurture the multicreative potential of their students. As an example, the authors cite that teachers should encourage students to make connections across disciplines use different forms of media to express their reasoning and understanding (e.g., drawings, movies, and other forms of visual media).[25]

Bharath Sriraman[edit]
Bharath Sriraman, of the University of Montana, also investigated the role of polymathy in education. He poses that an ideal education should nurture talent in the classroom and enable individuals to pursue multiple fields of research and appreciate both the aesthetic and structural/scientific connections between mathematics, arts and the sciences.[29]

In 2009, Sriraman published a paper reporting a 3-year study with 120 pre-service mathematics teachers and derived several implications for mathematics pre-service education as well as interdisciplinary education.[14] He utilized a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach to recreate the emotions, voices and struggles of students as they tried to unravel Russell's paradox presented in its linguistic form. They found that those more engaged in solving the paradox also displayed more polymathic thinking traits. He concludes by suggesting that fostering polymathy in the classroom may help students change beliefs, discover structures and open new avenues for interdisciplinary pedagogy.[14]

Michael Araki[edit]

The Developmental Model of Polymathy (DMP)
Michael Araki is a professor at Universidade Federal Fluminense in Brazil. He sought to formalize in a general model how the development of polymathy takes place. His Developmental Model of Polymathy (DMP) is presented in a 2018 article with two main objectives: (i) organize the elements involved in the process of polymathy development into a structure of relationships that is wed to the approach of polymathy as a life project, and (ii) provide an articulation with other well-developed constructs, theories and models, especially from the fields of giftedness and education.[30] The model, which was designed to reflect a structural model, has five major components: (1) polymathic antecedents, (2) polymathic mediators, (3) polymathic achievements, (4) intrapersonal moderators, and (5) environmental moderators.[30]

Regarding the definition of the term polymathy, the researcher, through an analysis of the extant literature, concluded that although there are a multitude of perspectives on polymathy, most of them ascertain that polymathy entails three core elements: breadth, depth and integration.[30][31][32]

Breadth refers to comprehensiveness, extension and diversity of knowledge. It is contrasted with the idea of narrowness, specialization, and the restriction of one's expertise to a limited domain. The possession of comprehensive knowledge at very disparate areas is a hallmark of the greatest polymaths.

Depth refers to the vertical accumulation of knowledge and the degree of elaboration or sophistication of one's sets of one's conceptual network. Like Robert Root-Bernstein, Araki uses the concept of dilettancy as a contrast to the idea of profound learning that polymathy entails.

Integration, although not explicit in most definitions of polymathy, is also a core component of polymathy according to the author. Integration involves the capacity of connecting, articulating, concatenating or synthesizing different conceptual networks, which in non-polymathic persons might be segregated. In addition, integration can happen at the personality level, when the person is able to integrate his or her diverse activities in a synergic whole, which can also mean a psychic (motivational, emotional and cognitive) integration.

Finally, the author also suggests that, via a psychoeconomic approach, polymathy can be seen as a "life project". That is, depending on a person's temperament, endowments, personality, social situation and opportunities (or lack thereof), the project of a polymathic self-formation may present itself to the person as more or less alluring and more or less feasible to be pursued.[30]

Angela Cotellessa[edit]
One of the most recent studies on the subject is Angela Cotellessa's doctoral Dissertation at George Washington University.[33] In this work, she conducts a phenomenological study focusing on the life experiences of modern-day polymaths. Her investigation focused on accomplished polymaths with careers spanning both the arts and sciences. The participants provided insights regarding their development and lives as polymaths (Cotellessa, 2018). Seven conclusions were drawn from her research: (1) to be a polymath, one must accept seeming unusual and sometimes contradictory; polymaths are intra-personally diverse—in other words, they have diversity within their own personhood (2) polymaths have a broad pool of experience, think both creatively and analytically, and juggle their many vocations and avocations by effectively managing their time; (3) being a polymath can be difficult but rewarding; (4) polymaths are analytically creative; (5) polymathy cannot be said to develop exclusively due to either nature nor nurture, and its continued expression throughout adulthood demands strong commitment to self-development; (6) polymathy distinguishes the individual from their peers from an early age often making them feel misunderstood; (7) family and financial resources influence the emergence of polymathy.

Related terms[edit]
Aside from "Renaissance man" as mentioned above, similar terms in use are homo universalis (Latin) and uomo universale (Italian), which translate to "universal man".[1] The related term "generalist"—contrasted with a "specialist"—is used to describe a person with a general approach to knowledge.

The term "universal genius" or "versatile genius" is also used, with Leonardo da Vinci as the prime example again. The term is used especially for people who made lasting contributions in at least one of the fields in which they were actively involved and when they took a universality of approach.

When a person is described as having encyclopedic knowledge, they exhibit a vast scope of knowledge. However, this designation may be anachronistic in the case of persons such as Eratosthenes, whose reputation for having encyclopedic knowledge predates the existence of any encyclopedic object.

Famous polymaths[edit]

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Aristotle, Greek, 384–322 BC
Archimedes, Greek, c. 287 - c. 212 BC
Seneca the Younger, Spanish-Roman, c. 4 BC – AD 65
Pliny the Elder, Roman, AD 23/24 - 79
Zhang Heng, Chinese, 78–139
Galen, Greek-Roman, 129–210
Jabir ibn Hayyan, Arab-Persian, 721-815
Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, Persian, 780-850
Abbas ibn Firnas, Andalusian-Arab, 810-887
Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi, Persian, 854–925
Al-Farabi, Persian, c. 872
Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), Arab, 965–1040
Al-Biruni, Persian, 973–1050
Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Persian, 980–1037
Shen Kuo, Chinese, 1031-1095
Omar Khayyam, Persian, 1048-1131
Ibn Bajja (Avempace), Andalusian-Arab, 1085-1138
Hildegard of Bingen, German, 1098–1179
Ibn Tufail, Arab, 1105–1185
Ibn Rushd (Averroes), Andalusian-Arab, 1126–1198
Maimonides, Andalusian, 1135–1204
Ismail al-Jazari, Arab-Turkic, 1136–1206
Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Persian, 1150 - 1210
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Persian, 1201-1274
Ibn al-Nafis, Arab, 1213-1288
Ibn Taymiyyah, Arab, 1263-1328
Leon Battista Alberti, Italian, 1404–1472
Antonio de Nebrija, Spanish, 1441–1522
Muhammad ibn Sharukh (Ulugh Begh), Timurid-Persian 1394-1449
Leonardo da Vinci, Italian, 1452–1519
Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish, 1473–1543
Taqi ad-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf, Ottoman-Arab, 1526-1585
Francis Bacon, English, 1561–1626
Galileo Galilei, Italian, 1564–1642
Fathullah Shirazi, Persian, c. 1582
René Descartes, French, 1596–1650
Blaise Pascal, French, 1623–1662
Isaac Newton, English, 1642–1726
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, German, 1646–1716
Benjamin Franklin, American, 1705–1790
Mikhail Lomonosov, Russian, 1711–1765
Thomas Jefferson, American, 1743–1826 [34]
Alexander von Humboldt, Prussian, 1769–1859
Sequoyah, Cherokee (Native American), 1770-1843
Thomas Young (scientist), British, 1773–1829
Mary Somerville, Scottish, 1780–1872
Charles Babbage, British, 1791–1871
Henri Poincaré, French, 1852–1912
Nikola Tesla, Serbian-Austrian, 1856–1942
Rabindranath Tagore, Indian-Bengali, 1861-1941
José Rizal, Filipino, 1861–1896
Marie Curie, Polish-French, 1867-1934
Bertrand Russell, British, 1872–1970
Albert Schweitzer, German, 1875–1965
Helen Keller, American, 1880–1968
Karl Jaspers, German, 1883–1969
John von Neumann, Hungarian-American, 1903–1957
Jacob Bronowski, Polish-born British, 1908–1974
Hedy Lamarr, Austrian-born American, 1914–2000
Herbert A. Simon, American, 1916-2001
Isaac Asimov, Russian-American, 1920–1992
Satyajit Ray, Indian-Bengali, 1921–1992
Michel Foucault, French, 1926–1984
Noam Chomsky, American, 1928–
George Steiner, Franco-American, 1929–2020
Alejandro Jodorowsky, Chilean-French, 1929–
Bruce Dickinson, English, 1958–