Monday, August 31, 2015

THE PRIME MINISTER OF #UGANDA SAYS TRAINING MILITIA IS GOOD FOR THE GOVERNMENT

YOU SEE, THIS IS STATE SANCTIONED AND LET THE WORLD KNOW THIS.  LET ME THROW IT ON TWITTER.  PEOPLE GET PREPARED.
IN LESS THAN A WEEK, TWO PEOPLE WERE KILLED IN BUDUDA BY CRIME PREVENTERS, ONE OF THEM BEING A KID OF 16YRS OLD. RIP.
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Kabale. Prime Minister Ruhakana Rugunda has applauded the recent recruitment of crime preventers, saying it is a good initiative.
Dr Rugunda emphasised that crime preventers are a legal entity and those criticising their establishment equating it to militia groups are out of order.
Opposition politicians and civil society organisations have often criticised crime preventers as a political move to ensure President Museveni secures victory in next year’s election.
Presiding over the pass out of 40,000 crime preventers at Kabale Main Stadium at the weekend, Dr Rugunda pledged Shs10 million towards the initiative.
“Crime preventers have to be strengthened because they help in implementation of government programmes. They don’t belong to any particular political party. These are Ugandans who are patriotic and pan-Africanists yearning to transform the country into a middle income country through preventing crime and ensuring peace in communities where they live,” Dr Rugunda said. He added: “These crime preventers should not be equated to any militia group as some critics say because they are part of the tools that shall be used to transform our country.”
The premier hailed the Inspector General of Police, Gen Kale Kayihura, for the initiative, arguing that the trainees will supplement the work of police.
Gen Kayihura said his target is to train at least 11 million Ugandans as crime preventers.
“This is a security system based on community members relied upon in preventing and detecting crime. That is how we built the UPDF. The NRA/NRM liberation struggle was successful because it was the people’s war. People involved in this struggle were exactly using the ideology of community policing,” Gen Kayihura said.

The training
Crime preventers are given elementary military skills and taught NRM ideology which Opposition politicians say is indoctrination to serve partisan interests, and that their capability to deal with crime in rural communities remains wanting.

http://www.monitor.co.ug/News/National/Crime-preventers-good-for-government--says-Rugunda/-/688334/2853490/-/eanq7oz/-/index.html

MUSEVENI'S TREATMENT OF #UGANDANS IS WELL DOCUMENTED - BY SPAN

KING MUSEVENI EXECUTES HIS OWN.
King Museveni has surpassed all African leaders in executing his own army. Many of those executed secretly are members of UPDF mainly from the Central and Northern regions for petty crimes. They are courtmartialed and executed by firing squad immediately but while he is in public he refers to UPDF as my army. Talking about killing me softly..

KING MUSEVENI HAS HIRED AN ISRAEL COMPANY FOR....
King Museveni has hired an Israel company NIKUV to help him rig elections. Robert Mugabe and many African dictators use this compony to rig elections and always come on top. This election will NOT be any different than 1996, 2001, 2006, 2011 and come 2016. King Museveni will never be removed through elections NEVER!!!. You cannot do something FIVE times and expect a different results people. We should look at another alternative of removing King Museveni, Ssabatemu


LET US FACE IT
King Museveni owns all the money in the country so he said, he owns UPDF, my army, he owns the police, Kayihura is a good NRM cadre, he owns Oil, my oil, he has called you small dogs, he has called you wolves, and he has said a mare paper cannot remove me from power, he has created Crime Preventers similar to Robert Mugabe's and funny people in Uganda are still waiting for 2016 to remove Ssabatemu!!!! It will not happen.


WIKIPEDIA IMPLICATES KING MUSEVENI IN THE MURDER OF AMONI BAZIRA
Why are people still supporting this cold killer that will never stop even after 30yrs in power? According to Wikipedia...."Amon Bazira (1944-1993) was a Pan-Africanist leader and organizer who created an extensive intelligence network that was a clandestine component of the struggle to end the regime of Uganda military dictator and president, Idi Amin. After helping to remove Idi Amin, Bazira served as deputy Director of intelligence, and then as Director of intelligence in Uganda in 1979. He produced a government report predicting that there would be
[11:33am, 2015-08-31] Span: FOREINERS ENTERED UGANDA 2001-2004 
According to UN
Sudan 650,000 
Rwanda 850,000
DRC 250,000
Somalis 15000
Ethiopians 90,000
This was eleven years ago. All these people do register to vote and Aronda admitted this to the parliaments but the M-Pigs did nothing because they are facilitated. Most of these foreigners own properties. We know first hand what foreigners can do we have King Museveni. When i raise these issues King Museveni's supporters call me a sectarian individual. Should we just keep quite and let foreigners swallow all of us? Not a chance?

HEED THE WARNINGS WE HAVE BEEN ISSUING ABOUT CRIME PREVERNTERS - #UGANDA

THE MASSACRES BY THE CRIME PREVENTERS HAVE STARTED AND NATURALLY HAVE STARTED WITH MY OWN HOME BUDUDA. MAY THE KID'S SOUL REST IN PEACE. THERE IS ANOTHER GENTLEMAN WHO WAS KILLED TWO DAYS AGO IN THE SAME BUDUDA BY A CRIME PREVENTER. I WILL SHARE THAT STORY WHEN IT GETS PRINTED.
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Bududa.

Angry residents of Nametsi village, Bukalasi sub-county in Bududa District last week attacked and destroyed Bukalasi Police Pos after a crime preventer allegedly shot dead a 16-year-old boy identified as Daniel Wanzama.

The father of the deceased, Mr Micheal Wanga, narrated to Daily Monitor that the incident happened last Thursday as he worked in the garden.

He said he heard noise coming from the direction where the children were playing, only to receive the bad news upon reaching the scene.

Eye witness accounts revealed that the boy and his colleagues were playing football in the compound of Nametsi Primary School when their ball accidentally hit a building housing the police post.

Mr Sam Wauyo, a local council leader, said: “When the boy ran to get the ball, the crime preventer reached for his gun and shot at him through the eyes, killing him instantly.”
The crime preventer later handed himself in to police. At the crime scene, Mr Wauyo told police officers that crime preventers in the area wear police uniforms and even execute arrests.

The Elgon region police commander, Mr Jacob Opolot, while delivering a condolence message to the bereaved family and residents at the weekend, said it was a grave mistake that would act as a big lesson to police.

“We are very sorry for what happened,” said Mr Opolot. He explained that crime preventers were only recruited to help with intelligence gathering and are not supposed to carry arms and put on police uniforms.

He said a crime preventer and one police officer have been arrested and will be charged accordingly. Police met all the burial expenses.

http://www.monitor.co.ug/News/National/Crime-preventer-accused-of-killing-16-year-old-boy/-/688334/2852634/-/rt34l4z/-/index.html

"ABANA BAFFE TULIBAGAMBA KYI" - #UGANDA HAS BEEN GIVEN AWAY

A friend sent me this via whatsap but you know, we all love our Frank Gashumba. If you don't, switch sides. He too hits with impact.
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Frank M.Gashumba While Mr. Kikoofila sorry Sudhir struggles to legitimatize his accusation of our 900 acres of land in Namuloge. The same man was given 6.5 acre piece of land (CMI) on Yusuf Lule road worthy billions of shillings. The same man grabbed land belonging to Kololo SS. The same man was given a plot of land at Entebbe Airport and Crane Bank has a structure there, other banks at the airport are tenants at civil avaition. The question to you Ugandans, why is it so easy for him to grab all prime properties belonging to Ugandans??? The man grabs public land and turns into a private property, the man grabs CMI land for free that used to accomodate doctors serving Mulago hospital and we Ugandans are busy sleeping saying Neera, Neera!! now he grabs 900 acres and Ministers legalize his transcations. The said person according to Media reports is the richest man in East Africa, why doesnt he buy land of his own. He argues that he is going to create 19,000 jobs for ugandans and there is no agreement between Government and Sudhir clearly expressing how many jobs he is going to create. How does Sudhir, M7 and the three Ministers know if there is a Ugandan who would run a project that can employ 200,000 people on the same land. Was it advertised in the press, did they follow the normal procedures of PPDA?? The lease is for 99 years not 45 years nearly giving this land to him and his grand children. Ugandans nothing restrains this man from turning our land into his Country home. Why is that the first priority wasnt given to the sitting tenants and why is it that every time there is a transcation to do with land, there are three names coming up!! Why arent Ugandans not given first priority in their Country? Do you guys still remember Shimoni land? Do you remember the 14 acres of prime land given to Ayaa brothers? If you are a Lawyer, What is your opinion on this? If you know of any Government property that has been disposed of during this NRM era, please post it here and inbox me your telephone number or send an email to info@naau.org.ug We are working on something that our children and our grand children will stand up one day and say that Gashumba and others served our country. Sisimuka Uganda, Teri Kulinda Kulala. Changing Mindsets, Creating Self Belief, Transforming Lives We make you think independently.

Sunday, August 30, 2015

REACTION ON THE BESIGYE AND MUNTU LIVE PRESIDENTIAL DEBATE - #UGANDA

Posted by someone in whatsap groups.
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I keenly followed Besigye and Mugisha Muntu Debate, I felt too inspired and I appreciated the level of democractic values in FDC a party far young than NRM and DP plus UPC...I saw hope in FDC liberating our country which is now in political and Economic Cementry ...I wish we can have such debates in NRM in which Mbabazi debate with H.E YK Museveni a freedom fighter.
Our Party NRM need to wake up from political sleep and refocus ..I was watching with my friends who are also members of NRM but after the debate they made decision to join FDC where issues are discussed and debated by leaders.I think people need debates now not coercion.
NRM need to think more or we loose the support of the masses and the elite class .....
That is my opinion. what do you think..

#UGANDA IS NOW CONSIDERED A NATION OF MIGRANTS - BY SPAN


Uganda under 30 years of one man rule King Museveni is now known as a nation of immigrants. Just like the United States of America known as a nation of immigrants, the only difference here is that King Museveni being a foreigner he has turned Uganda to be led by immigrants. Uganda made a deal with Israel where thousands of Ethiopians and South Sudanese that had flooded Israel to be repatriated to Uganda in exchange of military hardware and intelligence gadgets for King Museveni. The first batch of these foreigners were flown undercover in 2013 and majority of them were registered to vote and given government jobs. The second batch of immigrants are jetting into Uganda in the coming months. Its sad that Uganda has become one of Africa's foreign exchange beneficiary of much needed foreign currency besides Nigeria to export its citizens to go abroad in order to send money home. Ugandans outside, are in millions and each year they contribute almost a billion dollars to King Museveni's dictatorial regime. Museveni's government in need of foreign exchange, King Museveni has become the official government spokesman encouraging Ugandans to leave their country while they are being replaced by foreigners. Ugandans at home do not see their fellow countrymen outside the boarders of Uganda as doing a commendable job for bringing that much needed foreign exchange to crop up King Museveni's regime. Voice of Uganda Radio ( VOUR) an internet based radio recently aired a program castigating Ugandans abroad to help King Museveni to stay in power when themselves have the means to finance the removal of King Museveni without any help from Western countries. European countries have a symbiotic type of relationship with King Museveni that is scratch my back and i will let you stay in power as long as you want. What remains to be seen is that are Ugandans in diaspora ready to uproot King Museveni's brutal regime? Nathan Span and www.faddu.org

#UGANDANS ARE TREATED LIKE PAUPERS IN THEIR OWN COUNTRY - BY SPAN

Do not mistake my resilience to fight for my country and my fellow countrymen to be anything but tribal. For 30 yrs the people of Uganda specifically those from the central and the north have paid the greatest punishment of being Ugandans. A U-turn must be forced to go back to where all Ugandans are not looked at be be seen to be equal. This madness of twatera embundu twafuna obwojerero is out dated and sectarian in nature. Many of our people have died without knowing that they owned a country and those outside are being raped, tortured, beheaded because King Museveni's family is enjoying life in Uganda. None of King Museveni's children or grand children ever born in Uganda but Ssabatemu Museveni had the guts to tell ud leave Uganda and had the guts to force me live in such a condition in my own house called Uganda. Thirty years is enough and its time for all concerned Ugandans to wake up and fight for what we have left and that is dignity.

THE TUMULTUOUS HISTORY OF #UGANDA WITH ITS VIOLENCE AND DICTATORSHIP CONTINUES - BY SPAN

HISTORY REPEATS ITSELF AND THIS IS FOR YOU THE TWENTY SOMETHING
I am a Ugandan of sound mind and i am a peaceful man. Any man pushed to a limit has a right to fight back. Our political history has been very brutal to our people especially people from the Central region and from the Northern regions. Other regions have been neglected from colonialism up to today. All our governments past or present were tribal in nature and the very cause of this has been the army and still it is. Ugandan armies have been personal armies to keep one individual in power at the expense of our people. We have tried life presidency in Amin, Obote and Museveni and it has failed us miserably, isn't time we tried something different?. We cannot and will not please every Ugandan politically but an effort must be made. Why are shouting at each other when we know our problems? Bringing in foreigners to take our jobs, be part of the governing system by force, will not work. Our religious leaders are waiting for Jesus to come back so he can bring sanity to our nation, we cannot wait our people are dying from curable diseases, car accidents and yes from our own very government. Nassasira has been a minister for 30yrs, Kahinda Otafiire too, Sam Kuteesa etc and why? We should not let one man's refusal to give up power separate us as a people. And for you, the army, its about time to ask yourselves why have you been fighting for since 1986? Why should be proud of you for fighting our neighbors? Why should we be proud of for killing us on our streets? Why should be proud of you for fighting your fellow Ugandans because of their political affiliations? One love one nation. Every Ugandan, big or small, poor or rich had a reason good enough to be born a Ugandan and its time to go back to the drawing board and yes we can do it. Museveni cannot just keep on promising us day in day out. He has failed. Nathan Span at www.faddu.org

THE GENOCIDE PREPARATION IN #UGANDA IS IN ADVANCED STAGES

By Dr. Vincnet Magombe

Ugandan “INTERAHAMWE” in the Making - Preparations by Museveni regime of Genocidal Forces is in Advanced Stages – Ugandans stand warned.
[By Free Uganda State Crimes Investigations Unit]
Museveni is preparing for Rwanda-style genocide - Free Uganda continues to warn Ugandans to prepare themselves in order to prevent this sinister plot being realised.
Stories of state-sanctioned militia training by the likes of Major Kakooza Mutale are too serious to ignore.
Indicative reports of preparations by Museveni’s regime to commit state violence on a massive scale against innocent Ugandan citizens continue to circulate not only via social networks but also in the local Ugandan media, as evidenced by the following videos and articles:
Museveni and his loyal inner circle complicit in the creation and mobilisation of militias
President Museveni’s refusal to publically-disassociate himself and state house from this dangerous trend of affairs can only serve to consolidate the belief in the minds of most Ugandans that statehouse and the man who heads state house are behind the sinister plot.
Apart from the much publicised role being played by Museveni’s own senior advisor, Major Kakooza Mutale, the training and arming of state-linked militias is being done with the connivance of other top Museveni loyalists, like Gen Kale Kayihura and a number of ministers and senior NRM party members, who have, under Museveni’s instructions, set up a national task force to oversee the training, arming and deployment of the militia forces throughout Uganda, up to village levels.
It is in this context that one of Museveni’s trusted ministers, Ronald Kibuule, who sits on the said task force, was sent to represent Museveni at the official passing-out ceremony of Major Kakooza Mutale trained militias in Luweero. It was decided that, because of the sensitivities surrounding Kakooza Mutale’s name - a fellow who has distinguished himself as the electoral violence Iron Man, Museveni should not be the one to personally officiate at the said ceremony.
Museveni has of recent personally attended a number of passing out ceremonies of other militias forces who, for diversionary purposes, are code-named “Crime Preventers”.
The explicit confirmation by Major Mutale and Museveni right-hand lieutenants, such as General Kale Kayihura, that thousands of state-sponsored militias are being trained at private and even state-owned facilities, such as police and army training camps, is indicative of the frenetic determination by the Museveni regime to ignore all manner of constitutional provisions which prohibit those in power from violating the rights and freedoms of Ugandan citizens.
In this case, Ugandans stand to be denied the right to freely choose the leaders of their choice, since the ultimate aim of the training, arming and deployment of these state-sponsored militias is to intimidate and cow Ugandans into voting for Museveni and no other Ugandan as president of Uganda. This beside the gross violation of the citizens’ right to life, given the attendant mass murders that these militias are prepared to commit in the course of forcefully ring-fencing the position of president for only one man.
Sinister plot exposed:
Unfortunately for Museveni, his sinister plan to cause a genocide in Uganda in the name of perpetuating his undemocratic rule has been exposed to the fullest and is now the subject of intense criticism by an overwhelming number of Ugandan citizens.
Already several national and international human rights organisations, such as Foundation for Human Rights Initiative (FHRI), Human Rights Watch (HRW) and Amnesty International (AI), are paying keen attention to what is clearly a plan by the Museveni regime to train, arm and unleash pro-regime militia groups for purposes of gruesomely suppressing and containing anti-regime activism and forcefully and unconstitutionally perpetuating Museveni’s 30-year old rule in Uganda.
Free Uganda is to provide these organisations as well as others like the United Nations, as well international governments, especially the donor community which provides aid to Uganda, with additional information and evidence of on-going preparations of genocidal forces by the Museveni-regime.
The big concern is the obvious semblance of what is happening in Museveni’s Uganda to events that took place in neighbouring Rwanda in the first half of the 1990s, when militias were trained, armed and unleashed on sections of the population. The end result of what happened in Rwanda prior to the 1994 genocide is starkly and hauntingly written down in the blood of hundreds of thousands who perished in the East African country.
ENOUGH IS ENOUGH – say Ugandans. This Museveni-problem to be removed
As Ugandans are beginning to realise, the only logical solution to the present problems facing Uganda, including the natural inclination by the regime to violently suppress any form of political opposition activism, is for all citizens to quickly come together in unison and say ENOUGH IS ENOUGH.
But words alone will not take away the Museveni problem.
Ugandans must be prepared to stand up, individually or in well-organised and empowered groups, and participate in the struggle to rid Uganda of the dictatorship.
NO REFORMS, NO ELECTIONS
Free Uganda once again calls on Ugandans to organise and mobilise themselves into anti-regime fronts, with the view to disrupting any attempts by Museveni to organise and make happen sham elections without reforms.
There is no convincing reason why Ugandans should accept to take part in a sham electoral process whose result is a foregone conclusion.
Why should Ugandans agree to blindly escort Museveni to his victory through a rigged electoral process that has no semblance whatsoever to a democratic occurrence?
The 2016 elections are already rigged, and Museveni has already made sure that they are not to be free and fair. Not only has he refused to get the required electoral reforms in place. He is also preparing to unleash unprecedented violence on Ugandans as a way of ensuring the unopposed extension of his rule after 30 years of undemocratic governance over Uganda.
Ugandans are, thus, left with two choices – concede to the injustices and tribulations caused by Museveni’s undemocratic and repressive rule, or rise up and revolt against the regime using all constitutionally permissible means.
The people of Uganda need to realise that it is in their power, if united, well-organised and fully empowered, to put an end to this political quagmire. Only when Museveni is gone, will Ugandans be able to organise for themselves democratically, without the hindrance and constraints put in place by such an individual and his regime who are allergic to anything democratic.
Only when Museveni is gone, will Ugandans enjoy the full potential of their existence as free human beings, within the confines of a pro-people constitutional order.
There is no doubt about it – Museveni’s bad governance can be defeated if the people of Uganda finally decide that ENOUGH IS ENOUGH!
Photo Illustrations: President Museveni and Major Kakooza Mutale with his militia squads and some of the militia squad leaders.

Saturday, August 29, 2015

#UGANDANS MUST BE UNITED TO USHER IN A NEW GOVT. - BY KB (NOT BESIGYE)

This is KB. Not Besigye. The brother uses KB online. He posted in various whatsap groups. You all know where I stand with Buganda.
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In Uganda when a westerner runs for office, all his fellow tribes mates stand by him and refuse to be swayed by petty items like salt sugar soap etc etc to change there candidate... when it comes to the baganda solidarity does not exist in there vocabulary they look for the candidate that will dish out the BIGGEST BRIBE we see them now jumping around with Mbabazi and Besigye, yet they are Baganda candidates as well. MULIYIGA DDI ??? How long will you be used like condoms and then be discarded ???? MAMA FFINA YAMBA ABAGANDA BALIBUBI NNYO !!!!!

Friday, August 28, 2015

A TRIP ACROSS CANADA - MONTREAL QUEBEC CANADA - #UGANDA

SINCE I WILL BE DOING THE DRIVING IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC. THEY DRIVE REALLY BAD THERE AND I FIT IN.  THIS IS WHY I AM TAKING THE WHEEL AS SOON AS WE GET TO THE BORDER OF NEW BRUNSWICK CROSSING INTO QUEBEC.  LOOKS LIKE I AM AS CRAZY AS THEM.  You people need to come visit Montreal.  A place I have been too much with the girls.  IT training but I think our last time there was Options Trading.  My employer has sent me to many places.  This is why I must mention that my opinions are my own.  The Options and Futures training was self made.  You must understand that in Canada when you have a baby, you get 52+ weeks off work.  So for the 4 girls, I have had a year off work paid.   I would be the last person to tell you to have a kid in Canada or USA.   Thierry is from France.  I am from Uganda.  We have had no family to help us with the girls. Sometimes life looked very bleek. Thierry stopped working to raise the girls.  So the girls are ruined for life.  Their father is a French trained chef and OMG, they have to eat everything prepared from scratch.  I even miss the fast food.  But not allowed. Thierry has full custody of the girls. Well in Canada the parent who spends the most time with the kids kinda gets the kids.    I was always on the road or airplane. 



Montreal (Listeni/ˌmʌntrˈɒl/;[11] FrenchMontréal,[12] pronounced [ˈmõʁeal]) is a city in the Canadian province of Quebec. It is the largest city in the province, the second-largest in Canada and the 9th-largest in North America. Originally called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary",[13] it is named after Mount Royal,[14] the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. The city is on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city,[15][16] and a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of which is Île Bizard.
In 2011 the city had a population of 1,649,519.[6] Montreal's metropolitan area (CMA) (land area 4,259 square kilometres (1,644 sq mi)) had a population of 3,824,221[8] and a population of 1,886,481 in the urban agglomeration, all of the municipalities on the Island of Montreal included.[17] Current 2014 estimates of the CMA place the metropolitan area of Montreal at 4.1 million.[18]
French is the city's official language[19][20] and is the language spoken at home by 56.9% of the population of the city, followed byEnglish at 18.6% and 19.8% other languages (in the 2006 census).[21] In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 67.9% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 16.5% who speak English.[22] Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada with 56% of the population able to speak both English and French.[23] Montreal is the second largest primarily French-speaking city in the world, after Paris.[24][25][26] [27]
Montreal was named a UNESCO City of Design.[28][29] Historically the commercial capital of Canada, it was surpassed in population and economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s. It remains an important centre of commerce, aerospace, finance,pharmaceuticals, technology, design, culture, tourism, gaming, film and world affairs.[30] It is ranked 16th out of 140 cities in TheEconomist Intelligence Unit's Global Liveability Ranking.
In 2009, Montreal was named North America's leading host city for international association events, according to the 2009 preliminary rankings of the International Congress and Convention Association (ICCA).[31] In 2015, QS World University Rankings ranked Montreal the 8th-best place in the world to be a university student.[32]

Etymology[edit]

Originally called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary",[13] it is named after Mount Royal,[14] the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal, as it was spelled in Middle French (Mont Royal in modern French), but Cartier's 1535 diary entry, naming the mountain, refers to "le mont Royal". Another argument, mentioned by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, "Monte Real".[33]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Montreal

Pre-European contact[edit]

Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago.[34] By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages.[35]The Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnicity distinct from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee then based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century.[36] The French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, and estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people".[36]

La Place Royale[edit]

Seventy years later, the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley. This is believed due to outmigration, epidemic of European diseases, or intertribal wars.[36][37] In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site initially named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Rivière and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands.[38] In 1639Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Société de Notre-Dame de Montréal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives.

Ville-Marie[edit]

Main article: Fort Ville-Marie
Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, then 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury. The colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, and arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal island, with Maisonneuve as its first governor. The settlement included a chapel and a hospital, under the command of Jeanne Mance.[39] By 1643, Ville-Marie had already been hit by Iroquois raids. In the spring of 1651, the Iroquois attacks became so frequent and so violent that Ville-Marie thought its end had come. Maisonneuve made all the settlers take refuge in the fort. By 1652, the colony at Montreal had been so reduced that he was forced to return to France to raise 100 volunteers to go with him to the colony the following year. If the effort had failed, Montreal was to be abandoned and the survivors re-located downriver to Quebec City. Before these 100 arrived in the fall of 1653, the population of Montreal was barely 50 people.
By 1685, Ville-Marie was home to some 600 colonists, most of them living in modest wooden houses. Ville-Marie became a centre for the fur trade and a base for further French exploration.[39] In 1689, the English-allied Iroquois attacked Lachine on the Island of Montreal, committing the worst massacre in the history of New France.[40] By the early 18th century, the Sulpician Order was established there. To encourage French settlement, they wanted the Mohawk to move away from the fur trading post at Ville-Marie. They had a mission village, known as Kahnewake, south of the St Lawrence River. The fathers persuaded some Mohawk to make a new settlement at their former hunting grounds north of the Ottawa River. This became Kanesatake.[41] In 1745 several Mohawk families moved upriver to create another settlement, known asAkwesasne. All three are now Mohawk reserves in Canada. The Canadian territory was ruled as a French colony until 1760, when it was surrendered to Great Britain after theSeven Years' War.[42]
Ville-Marie was the name for the settlement that appeared in all official documents until 1705, when Montreal appeared for the first time, although people referred to the "Island of Montreal" long before then.[43]

Modern history[edit]

Montreal was incorporated as a city in 1832.[44] The opening of the Lachine Canal permitted ships to bypass the unnavigable Lachine Rapids,[45] while the construction of theVictoria Bridge established Montreal as a major railway hub. The leaders of Montreal's business community had started to build their homes in the Golden Square Mile from about 1850. By 1860, it was the largest municipality in British North America and the undisputed economic and cultural centre of Canada.[46][47]
The Montreal Harbour in 1889.
Montreal was the capital of the Province of Canada from 1844 to 1849, but lost its status when a Tory mob burnt down the Parliament building to protest the passage of the Rebellion Losses Bill.[48] For strategic reasons, the government established Ottawa as the capital, as it was located more in the interior of the nation.
Saint Jacques Street(formerly St. James Street), in 1910
An internment camp was set up at Immigration Hall in Montreal from August 1914 to November 1918.[49]
After World War I, the prohibition movement in the United States led to Montreal becoming a destination for Americans looking for alcohol.[50] Unemployment remained high in the city, and was exacerbated by theStock Market Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression.[51]
During World War II, Mayor Camillien Houde protested against conscription and urged Montrealers to disobey the federal government's registry of all men and women.[52] The government at Ottawa was furious over Houde's stand and held him at a prison camp until 1944.[53] That year the government decided to institute conscription to be able to expand the armed forces. (See Conscription Crisis of 1944.)[52]
Montreal was the official residence of the Luxembourg royal family in exile during World War II.[54]
By 1951, Montreal's population had surpassed one million.[55] The Saint Lawrence Seaway opened in 1959, allowing vessels to bypass Montreal. In time this development led to the end of the city's economic dominance as businesses moved to other areas.[56] During the 1960s there was continued growth, including the World's Fair known as Expo 67, and the construction of Canada's tallest skyscrapers, new expressways and the subway system known as the Montreal Metro.
The 1970s ushered in a period of wide-ranging social and political changes, stemming largely from the concerns of the French-speaking majority about the conservation of their culture and language, given the traditional predominance of the English-Canadian minority in the business arena.[57] The October Crisis and the 1976 election of the Parti Québécois, supporting sovereign status for Quebec, resulted in the departure of many businesses and people from the city.[58] In 1976, Montreal was the host of the Olympics.[59] During the 1980s and early 1990s, Montreal experienced a slower rate of economic growth than many other major Canadian cities.
Montreal was merged with the 27 surrounding municipalities on the Island of Montreal on January 1, 2002, creating a unified city covering the entire island. There was great resistance from the suburbs to the merger, with the perception being that it was forced on the mostly English suburbs by the Parti Québécois. As expected, this move proved unpopular and several mergers were later rescinded. Several former municipalities, totaling 13% of the population of the island, voted to leave the unified city in separatereferendums in June 2004. The demerger took place on January 1, 2006, leaving 15 municipalities on the island, including Montreal. De-merged municipalities remain affiliated with the city through an agglomeration council that collects taxes from them to pay for numerous shared services.[60] The 2002 mergers were not the first in the city's history. Montreal annexed 27 other cities, towns, and villages beginning with Hochelaga in 1883 with the last prior to 2002 being Pointe-aux-Trembles in 1982.
The 21st century has brought with it a revival of the city's economic and cultural landscape. The construction of new residential skyscrapers, two super-hospitals (the Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal and McGill University Health Centre), the creation of the Quartier des Spectacles, reconstruction of the Turcot Interchange, reconfiguration of the Decarie and Dorval interchanges, gentrification of Griffintown, subway line extensions and the purchase of new subway cars, the complete revitalization and expansion ofMontreal-Trudeau International Airport, the completion of Quebec Autoroute 30, and the construction of a new toll bridge to Laval are helping Montreal continue to grow.[citation needed]