Tuesday, February 17, 2015

EUC - End User Certificate on Ammunition

The source on this is Wikipedia where everyone can edit and contribute. I am a Wiki editor and contributor and you should also consider it.  One of my older cousins who has a long track record with UN brought this to my attention when Uganda offered to purchase arms for South Sudan.  Read up people.

An End-user certificate, or EUC, is a document used in international transfers, including sales and arms provided as aid, of weapons and ammunition to certify that the buyer is the final recipient of the materials, and is not planning on transferring the materials to another party. EUCs are required by many governments to restrict the flow of the materials to undesired destinations, such as embargoed states or rebel groups, governments with bad human rights records or states which are considered a threat by the original supplier of the arms.

There are several problems with EUCs as a means to prevent undesirable arms exports. EUCs can be forged or falsified; they can also be obtained from corrupt officials. Therefore there is a need for EUCs that are difficult to forge.[1] Another problem is that an EUC does not guarantee that the arms recipient will actually live up to its promise not to re-transfer the weapons received. EUCs which are not backed up by proper end-use monitoring are weak. Finally, arms dealers can resort to smuggling arms; for example by labeling them as or hiding them between commercial merchandise.[2]

In 1936-1938, German arms were supplied to both sides in the Spanish Civil War via Greece using Greek then Mexican end-user certificates, see Pyrkal.

Jump up ^ "End-User Certificates: Improving standards to prevent diversion". Retrieved 2010-09-05.
Jump up ^ "End-User Certificate". Retrieved 2007-12-18.

This one is from Cornell University.

§ 745.2 End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.
The End-Use Certificate requirement of this section does not relieve the exporter of any requirement to obtain a license from the Department of Commerce for the export of Schedule 3 chemicals subject to the Export Administration Regulations or from the Department of State for the export of Schedule 3 chemicals subject to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations.
(1) No U.S. person, as defined in § 744.6(c) of the EAR, may export from the United States any Schedule 3 chemical identified in Supplement No. 1 to this part to countries not party to the Chemical Weapons Convention (destinations not listed in Supplement No. 2 to this part) unless the U.S. person obtains from the consignee an End-Use Certificate issued by the government of the importing destination. This Certificate must be issued by the foreign government's agency responsible for foreign affairs or any other agency or department designated by the importing government for this purpose. Supplement No. 3 to this part includes foreign authorized agencies responsible for issuing End-Use Certificates pursuant to this section. Additional foreign authorized agencies responsible for issuing End-Use Certificates will be included in Supplement No. 3 to this part when known. End-Use Certificates may be issued to cover aggregate quantities against which multiple shipments may be made to a single consignee. An End-Use Certificate covering multiple shipments may be used until the aggregate quantity is shipped. End-Use Certificates must be submitted separately from license applications.
(2) Submit a copy of the End-Use Certificate, no later than 7 days after the date of export, either by fax to (202) 482-1731 or by mail or courier delivery to the following address: Information Technology Team, Treaty Compliance Division, Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S. Department of Commerce, Room 4515, 14th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230. Attn: “CWC End-Use Certificate Report”.
(b) The End-Use Certificate described in paragraph (a) of this section must state the following:
(1) That the chemicals will be used only for purposes not prohibited under the Chemical Weapons Convention;
(2) That the chemicals will not be transferred to other end-user(s) or end-use(s);
(3) The types and quantities of chemicals;
(4) Their specific end-use(s); and
(5) The name(s) and complete address(es) of the end-user(s).
[64 FR 27143, May 18, 1999, as amended at 64 FR 49381, Sept. 13, 1999; 66 FR 49525, Sept. 28, 2001; 73 FR 38910, July 8, 2008]

Compiled by:
Martha Leah Zesaguli (Nangalama)
Moncton, Canada
Born and Raised in Uganda (Bududa District, the land of land slides around Mt. Elgon)
For God and My Country

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